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Biochar for environmental management: science and technology

Author: Lehmann, Johannes ; Joseph, StephenPublisher: Earthscan, 2009.Language: EnglishDescription: 416 p. : Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 26 cm.ISBN: 9781844076581Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Europe Campus
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Print GE170 .B56 2009
(Browse shelf)
Available 001274394
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Includes bibliographical references and index


Biochar for environment management Science and technology Table of contents List of figures, tables and boxes List of contributors Preface Foreword by Tim Flannery List of abbreviations 1 Biochar for Environmental Management: An Introduction xi xix xxiii xxv xxvii 1 1 2 3 5 9 13 13 14 14 15 15 17 19 20 22 22 24 26 27 29 29 33 33 33 43 Johannes Lehmann and Stephen Joseph What is biochar? Biochar terminology The origin of biochar management and research The big picture Adoption of biochar for environmental management 2 Physical Properties of Biochar Adriana Downie, Alan Crosky and Paul Munroe Introduction Biochars: Old and new Relevance of extended literature Caution on comparing data Origin of biochar structure Influence of molecular structure on biochar morphology Loss of structural complexity during pyrolysis Industrial processes for altering the physical structure of biochar Soil surface areas and biochar Biochar nanoporosity Biochar macroporosity Particle-size distribution Biochar density Mechanical strength Future research 3 Characteristics of Biochar: Microchemical Properties James E. Amonette and Stephen Joseph Introduction and scope Formation and bulk composition Surface chemistry 4 Characteristics of Biochar: Organo-chemical Properties 53 53 54 58 63 67 67 68 74 79 81 85 85 86 89 91 92 95 102 107 107 108 112 Evelyn S. Krull, Jeff A. Baldock, Jan 0. Skjemstad and Ronald J. Smernik Introduction Elemental ratios 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy Oulook 5 Biochar: Nutrient Properties and Their Enhancement K. Yin Chan and Zhihong Xu Introduction Nutrient properties of biochars and crop production responses Factors controlling nutrient properties of biochar Improving the nutrient value of biochars: Research opportunities and challenges Conclusions 6 Characteristics of Biochar: Biological Properties Janice E. Thies and Matthias C. Rillig Introduction Biochar as a habitat for soil microorganisms Biochar as a substrate for the soil biota Methodological issues Effects of biochar on the activity of the soil biota Diversity of organisms interacting with biochar Conclusions 7 Developing a Biochar Classification and Test Methods Stephen Joseph, Cordner Peacocke, Johannes Lehmann and Paul Munroe Why do we need a classification system? Existing definitions and classification systems for charcoal, activated carbon and coal Proposed classification system for biochar 8 Biochar Production Technology Robert Brown Introduction History of charcoal-making Mechanisms of biochar production from biomass substrates Opportunities for advanced biochar production 9 Biochar Systems 127 127 128 133 139 147 147 148 149 154 164 Johannes Lehmann and Stephen Joseph Introduction Motivation for biochar soil management Components of biochar systems Biochar systems Outlook 110 Changes of Biochar in Soil 169 169 170 172 174 177 178 183 183 184 188 188 191 196 198 207 207 208 214 217 222 227 Karen Hammes and Michael WI. Schmidt Introduction Mechanisms of incorporation and movement of biochar in soil Physical changes of biochar in soil Chemical changes of biochar in soil Biotic changes of biochar in soil Conclusions 111 Stability of Biochar in Soil Johannes Lehmann, Claudia Czimczik, David Laird and Saran Sohi Introduction Extent of biochar decay Biochar properties and decay Mechanisms of biochar decay Stabilization of biochar in soil Environmental conditions affecting biochar stability and decay A biochar stability framework 12 Biochar Application to Soil Paul Blackwell, Glen Riethmuller and Mike Collins Introduction Purpose of biochar application Biochar properties and application methods Methods of application and incorporation: Specific examples Comparison of methods and outlook 13 Biochar and Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases from Soil Lukas Van Zwieten, Bhupinderpal Singh, Stephen Joseph, Stephen Kimber, Annette Cowie and K. Yin Chan Introduction Evidence for reduced soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using biochar Biological mechanisms for reduced GHG emissions following biochar application Abiotic mechanisms influencing GHG emissions using biochar Conclusions 14 Biochar Effects on Soil Nutrient Transformations 227 228 232 239 243 251 251 252 254 255 265 Thomas H. DeLuca, M. Derek MacKenzie and Michael J. Gundale Introduction Nutrient content of biochar Potential mechanisms for how biochar modifies nutrient transformations Direct and indirect influences of biochar on soil nutrient transformations Conclusions 15 Biochar Effects on Nutrient Leaching 271 271 273 279 282 289 289 290 292 293 294 296 301 301 303 311 312 317 317 318 321 324 325 333 336 Julie Major, Christoph Steiner, Adriana Downie and Johannes Lehmann Introduction Evidence for relevant characteristics of biochar Magnitude and temporal dynamics of biochar effects on nutrient leaching Conclusions and research needs 16 Biochar and Sorption of Organic Compounds Ronald J. Smernik Introduction Sorption properties of 'pure' biochars Influence of biochar on the sorption properties of soils Effects on sorption of adding biochar to soil Direct identification of organic molecules sorbed to biochar Conclusions and directions for future research 17 Test Procedures for Determining the Quantity of Biochar within Soils David A. C. Manning and Elsa Lopez-Capel Introduction Biochar quantification methods Routine quantification of biochar in soils Conclusions 18 Biochar, Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Emissions Trading John Gaunt (Ind Annette Cowie The climate change context Greenhouse gas emissions trading How biochar contributes to climate change mitigation What mitigation benefits are tradable in a pyrolysis for biochar and bioenergy project? Greenhouse gas balance of example biochar systems Issues for emissions trading based on pyrolysis for bioenergy and biochar Conclusions 19 Economics of Biochar Production, Utilization and Greenhouse Gas Offsets 341 Bruce A. McCarl, Cordner Peacocke, Ray Chrisman, Chih-Chun Kung and Ronald D. Sands Introduction Pyrolysis and biochar Examination of a biomass to pyrolysis feedstock prospect Sensitivity analysis Omitted factors Conclusions 341 342 343 354 355 356 20 Socio-economic Assessment and Implementation of Small-scale Biochar Projects Stephen Joseph 359 Introduction Developing a methodology Model scenario of a hypothetical village-level biochar project Conclusions 21 Taking Biochar to Market: Some Essential Concepts for Commercial Success Mark Glover 359 360 365 371 375 Introduction Biochar's positioning in the sustainability and climate change agendas The sustainability context for biomass generally Inherent characteristics of the biomass resource Lessons from the first-generation liquid biofuels sector Biochar commercialization framework Commercial factors and business modelling 22 Policy to Address the Threat of Dangerous Climate Change: A Leading Role for Biochar 375 377 378 379 380 381 388 393 Peter Read The tipping point threat Beyond emissions reductions Carbon removals The economics of biosphere C stock management (BCSM) and biochar A policy framework for carbon removals: The leaky bucket Food versus fuel and biochar Conclusions Index 393 394 395 396 398 400 401 405

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