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Attention and self-regulation: a control-theory approach to human behavior

Author: Carver, Charles S. ; Scheier, Michael F. Series: Springer series in social psychology Publisher: Springer, 1981.Language: EnglishDescription: 403 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0387905537Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print BF611 .C378 1981
(Browse shelf)
001259667
Available 001259667
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

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Springer Series in Social Psychology Attention and Self-Regulation: A Control-Theory Approach to Human Behavior Contents Part I. Background ................................................................................................. 1 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................... 3 A Statement of Intentions ................................................................................ 3 Organizational Plan .......................................................................................... 5 2. Cybernetics, Information, and Control ......................................................... 11 Information ..................................................................................................... 12 Levels of Information Classification of Input Control ............................................................................................................ 15 Negative Feedback Loop and TOTE Unit Organizations Among Feedback Loops Positive Feedback Loops Hierarchical Organization and Time Scales Section Summary Applications to Living Systems ..................................................................... 25 Homeostasis Adaptation-Level Theory Behavior Regulation Information, Control, and Personality-Social Psychology ........................ 30 3. Focus of Attention, Inside and Outside the Laboratory .............................. 33 Defining Terms .............................................................................................. 34 Attention ......................................................................................................... 34 Self-Focus and Environment Focus ............................................................... 35 Maintaining the Distinction Varying Attention in Research ....................................................................... 39 General Issues in Research Strategy .............................................................. 40 Experimental Manipulations and Individual Differences Experimental Manipulations: Their Nature and Timing Manipulations of Self-Attention .................................................................... 43 Validation Individual Differences in Self-Focus ............................................................. 45 Validation Convergence of Manipulation and Disposition ............................................. 49 Validity Private and Public Self-Awareness Beyond the Laboratory .................................................................................. 51 Naturalistic Variations in Attentional Focus ..................................................52 Attention to the Environment Attention to the Self Conclusion ......................................................................................................55 Part II. Information and the Use of Recognitory Schemas ............................. 57 4. Cognitive Theory: Schemas, Attributes, and Decision Biases ................... 59 Models of Abstraction ....................................................................................61 Instance Theories Prototype Theories Frequency-Distribution Theories Section Summary Schemas and Prototypes Abstraction: Some Additional Issues .............................................................67 A Hierarchy of Attribute Qualities Frames and Scripts Decision Making ............................................................................................ 71 Biases in Decision Making Section Summary 5. Focus on the Environment: Perception of Places and Persons ................. 77 Behavioral Settings and Environmental Taxonomies ....................................77 Person Perception ...........................................................................................80 Traits as Recognitory Schemas Determinants of Initial Category Placement Consequences of Initial Category Placement Organization of Perception of Sequences ......................................................89 Segmenting of Behavior Units Focus of Attention and Perception of the Environment ................................ 93 6. Focus on the Self: Perception of Self-Aspects ..............................................95 Trait Schemas and the Self .............................................................................95 Self Schemas and Encoding Component Schemas and Degrees of Schematicity Conclusion Access to Self Schemas ..................................................................................99 Self-Focus and Encoding by Self-Reference Self-Focus and Activation of the Self Schema Access and Attribution Internal States: Emotions and Symptoms ...................................................... 104 Three Sources of Influence on Perceived Internai States Impact of Each Element on Subjective Experience Schemas and Symptom Distress Evoked Schemas and the By-Passing of Awareness Chapter Summary ........................................................................................116 Part III. Attention and Motivation .................................................................. 117 7. Standards of Behavior ................................................................................. 119 Standards ......................................................................................................120 What is a Behavioral Standard? Categorization and the Specification of Behavior Section Summary A Hierarchy of Standards .............................................................................127 Levels of Behavioral Standards Conceptual Levels and the Physical Execution of Behavior Distinctions Within Levels Summary Programs, Principles, and Consciousness ....................................................136 Effects of Attending to Well-Learned Behavior Closing Comment 8. Self-Focus and Feedback Loops ................................................................. 143 Discrepancy Reduction ................................................................................ 144 Theory .......................................................................................................... 144 Duval and Wicklund's Theory The Comparison of Present State Versus Standard ..................................... 146 Self-Awareness and Information Seeking Self-Consciousness and Information Seeking Self-Consciousness and the Seeking of Diagnostic Information Self-Awareness and the Seeking of Diagnostic Information Conclusions and Boundary Condition Behavioral Matching to Standard ................................................................ 151 Nonprovoked Aggression Responses to Erotica Children's Use of Standards Section Summar), Discrepancy Enlargement ............................................................................ 157 Reactance ..................................................................................................... 157 Self-Awareness and Reactance Self-Consciousness and Reactance Self-Attention, Reactance, and Feedback Loops Negative Reference Groups ......................................................................... 162 Self-Consciousness and Use of Negative Reference Groups Positive Feedback Loop Social Comparison: A Theoretical Integration ............................................ 165 9. Absence of Regulation, and Misregulation ................................................167 A Conceptual Distinction .............................................................................167 The Absence of Regulation ..........................................................................169 Causes Deindividuation and the Absence of Regulation Remaining Issues Regarding Deindividuation Related Issues Misregulation ........................................................................................... 179 Ilustrations from Behavioral Medicine Illustrations from Social Behavior Chapter Summary ........................................................................................ 182 Part IV. Interruption, Expectancy and the Reassertion­Withdrawal Decision ............................................................................................... 183 10. Theory: Interrupting the Feedback Loop, and the Role of Expectancy .................................................................................................. 185 Interruption of the System: An Example ..................................................... 185 Response to Interruption: Assessment of Outcome Expectancy ................. 187 Bases of Expectancies .................................................................................188 Prior Success and Failure Other Bases for Expectancies Consequences of Expectancy Judgments ................................................... 193 Behavioral Consequences Relationship to Other Theories Affective Consequences of Expectancy Judgments Chapter Summary .........................................................................................200 11. Research: Persistence and Task Performance ........................................... 203 Early Research ............................................................................................ 203 Discrepancy and the Avoidance of Self-Focusing Stimuli Discrepancy and Selective Exposure to Self Subsequent Research Conceming Outcome Expectancy ........................... 205 Avoidance and the Flexibility of the Discrepancy Self-Focus and Expectancies: Persistence and Withdrawal Self-Consciousness, Prior Outcomes, and Persistence Self-Esteem, Self-Attention, and Task Performance Self-Awareness, Relevance, and Persistence Outcome Expectancy and Efficacy Expectancy .........................................213 Links Between Cognition and Emotion in Achievement Attributions, Expectancy, and Achievement Behavior Prior Outcomes, Attribution, and Maze Performance Chapter Summary ....................................................................................... 221 12. Research: Anxiety-Related Behavior .......................................................... 223 Self-Attention and Fear ...............................................................................223 Self-Awareness and Phobic Behavior Self-Consciousness, Standards, and Fear Expectancies, Fear, and the Approach­Withdrawal Decision Self-Attention and Test Anxiety Test Anxiety, Self-Focus, and Facilitation of Performance Theoretical Comparisons ............................................................................ 234 Theories of Test Anxiety Self-Efficacy Chapter Summary ....................................................................................... 241 13. Additional Conceptual Issues: Achievement Motivation, Helplessness, and Egotism ....................................................................... 243 Achievement Motivation ............................................................................. 243 Atkinson' s Formulation Relationship w Present Model The Role of Causal Attributions Section Summary Helplessness .................................................................................................251 Reassertion and Giving Up Attributions, Behavior, and Affect Section Summary Egotism and Self-Esteem Maintenance .......................................................255 Control Theory and Self-Esteem Maintenance Egotism and Attribution Egotism and Helplessness Expectancies, Outcomes, and the Effect of Perceived Difficulty Conceptual Similarities Self-Esteem Protection: Public or Private? Section Summar), Chapter Summary ........................................................................................ 266 Part V. Implications for Specific Problems in Social and Personality Psychology .......................................................................267 14. Relationship Between Self-Report and Behavior .................................... 269 Problems of Measurement ........................................................................... 270 Levels of Specificity of Self-Report and Behavior Insufficient Sampling of Behavior Assessment of Behavioral Inconsistency Conceptual Problems ................................................................................... 272 Veridicality of Self-Reports The Role of Direct Experience in Attitude Formation Relevance of Attitudes as Behavioral Standards Self-Awareness and the Use of Evoked Attitudes Types of Self-Report ....................................................................................284 15. Social Facilitation ........................................................................................287 Drive Theory and Social Facilitation ...........................................................287 Alternative Drive Theories Control Theory and Social Facilitation ....................................................... 288 Comparisons Among Theories Evidence Regarding Mediating States .........................................................291 Self-Focus and Comparison with Standards Drive Palmar Sweat and Social Facilitation .......................................................... 293 Results and Discussion Additional Questions ................................................................................... 297 Social Interference Comparisons Among Manipulations Physiological Response Patterning 16. Private and Public Selves .............................................................................307 Self-Completion, or Self-Presentation? ........................................................307 Impact on Research Areas Self, or Selves? ............................................................................................. 309 Aspects of Self Implications The Consciousness of Public Versus Private Self-Aspects ..........................311 Public and Private Selves in a Compliance Setting Public and Private Selves and Reactions to Coercion The Public Expression of Privately Held Opinions Private and Public Self-Awareness Reinterpreting Other Research Section Summary Self-Monitoring ............................................................................................ 322 Summary, Critique, and Integration 17. Cognitive Dissonance .................................................................................... 327 Self-Attention and Dissonance ..................................................................... 328 Public and Private Self-Aspects Tests of the Public­Private Analysis ............................................................329 Self-Focus Manipulations and Dissonance Reduction Self-Consciousness and Dissonance Reduction Relationship to Other Dissonance Research ................................................ 334 Dissonance, or Impression Management? .................................................... 337 Part VI. Conclusion .............................................................................................339 18. Afterword: Theory and Meta-Theory .........................................................341 Changes in the Learning Paradigm ...............................................................341 Meta-Theoretical Issues ................................................................................343 Reinforcement Control Theory Conclusion .................................................................................................... 346 References ............................................................................................................ 349 Author Index ........................................................................................................387 Subject Index ....................................................................................................... 399

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