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Cultures and organizations: software of the mind: intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival

Author: Hofstede, Geert ; Hofstede, Geert Jan ; Minkov, MichaelPublisher: McGraw-Hill, 2010.Edition: 3rd ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 561 p. : Graphs/Ill. ; 23 cm.ISBN: 9780071664189Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary
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Book Europe Campus
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Print HM258 .H574 2010
(Browse shelf)
Available 001272840
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Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary


Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival Contents Preface PART I xi The Concept of Culture The Rules of the Social Game Different Minds but Common Problems Culture as Mental Programming Symbols, Heroes, Rituals, and Values Culture Reproduces Itself No Group Can Escape Culture Values and the Moral Circle Boundaries of the Moral Circle: Religion and Philosophy Beyond Race and Family We and They Ideologies as Group Markers Layers of Culture Culture Change: Changing Practices, Stable Values National Culture Differences National Identifies, Values, and Institutions 3 4 4 7 10 11 12 18 14 16 17 17 18 20 22 What About National Management Cultures? Cultural Relativism Culture as a Phoenix 2 Studying Cultural Differences Measuring Values Dimensions of National Cultures Using Correlations Replications of the IBM Research Extending the IBM Model: The Chinese Value Survey Validation of the Country Culture Scores Against Other Measures Culture Scores and Personality Scores: No Reason for Stereotyping Other Classifications of National Cultures A Second Expansion of the Hofstede Dimensional Model: Minkov's Exploration of the World Values Survey Cultural Differences According to Region, Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, Generation, and Class Organizational Cultures Reading Mental Programs: Suggestions for Researchers PART II 24 25 26 27 28 29 32 34 37 38 39 40 44 45 47 47 Dimensions of National Cultures 3 More Equal than Others Inequality in Society Measuring the Degree of Inequality in Society: The Power Distance Index Power Distance Defined Power Distance in Replication Studies Power Distance Differences Within Countries: Social Class, Education Level, and Occupation Measures Associated with Power Distance: The Structure in This and Following Chapters Power Distance Difference Among Countries: Roots in the Family Power Distance at School 53 54 55 60 62 64 66 67 69 Power Distance and Health Care Power Distance in the Workplace Power Distance and the State Power Distance and Ideas Origins of Power Distance Differences The Future of Power Distance Differences 4 I, We, and They 71 73 75 79 82 86 89 The Individual and the Collective in Society Measuring the Degree of Individualism in Society Individualism and Collectivism in the World Values Survey: Universalism Versus Exclusionism Individualism and Collectivism in Other Cross-National Studies Are Individualism and Collectivism One or Two Dimensions? Collectivism Versus Power Distance Individualism and Collectivism According to Occupation Individualism and Collectivism in the Family Language, Personality, and Behavior in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures Individualism and Collectivism at School Individualism and Collectivism in the Workplace Individualism, Collectivism, and the Internet Individualism, Collectivism, and the State Individualism, Collectivism, and Ideas Origins of Individualism-Collectivism Differences The Future of Individualism and Collectivism 5 He, She, and (S)he Assertiveness Versus Modesty Genders and Gender Roles Masculinity-Femininity as a Dimension of Societal Culture Masculinity and Femininity in Other Cross-National Studies Masculinity Versus Individualism Are Masculinity and Femininity One or Two Dimensions? Country Masculinity Scores by Gender and Gender Scores by Age Masculinity and Femininity According to Occupation Masculinity and Femininity in the Family Masculinity and Femininity in Gender Roles and Sex 90 92 94 99 102 102 105 106 112 117 119 123 125 127 131 133 135 136 137 138 144 146 146 148 150 151 154 Masculinity and Femininity in Education Masculinity and Femininity in Shopping Masculinity and Femininity in the Workplace Masculinity, Femininity, and the State Masculinity, Femininity, and Religion Origins of Masculinity-Femininity Differences The Future of Differences in Masculinity and Femininity 6 What Is Different Is Dangerous The Avoidance of Uncertainty Measuring the (In)tolerance of Ambiguity in Society: The Uncertainty-Avoidance Index Uncertainty Avoidance and Anxiety Uncertainty Avoidance Is Not the Same as Risk Avoidance Uncertainty Avoidance in Replication Studies: Project GLOBE Uncertainty Avoidance According to Occupation, Gender, and Age Uncertainty Avoidance in the Family Uncertainty Avoidance, Health, and (Un)happiness Uncertainty Avoidance at School Uncertainty Avoidance in Shopping Uncertainty Avoidance in the Workplace Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity, and Motivation Uncertainty Avoidance, the Citizen, and the State Uncertainty Avoidance and Corruption Uncertainty Avoidance, Xenophobia, and Nationalism Uncertainty Avoidance, Religion, and Ideas Origins of Uncertainty-Avoidance Differences The Future of Uncertainty-Avoidance Differences 7 Yesterday, Now, or Later? National Values and the Teachings of Confucius Implications of LTO-CVS Differences for Family Life Implications of LTO-CVS Differences for Business Implications of LTO-CVS Differences for Ways of Thinking Long-Term Orientation Scores Based on World Values Survey Data Long-Term Orientation ami the GLOBE Dimensions 158 163 164 170 175 180 184 187 188 190 195 197 198 199 200 202 205 206 208 213 216 221 224 226 232 233 235 236 240 242 246 252 259 Long- and Short-Term Orientation, Family Relations, and School Results Long- and Short-Term Orientation and Economic Growth Economic Growth and Politics Fundamentalisms as Short-Term Orientation Short-Term Orientation in Africa The Future of Long- and Short-Term Orientation 8 Light or Dark? The Nature of Subjective Well-Being Subjective Well-Being and the World Values Survey Indulgence Versus Restraint as a Societal Dimension Indulgence Versus Restraint and Subjective Well-Being in Other Cross-National Studies Indulgence Versus Restraint, Subjective Health, Optimism, and Birth rates Indulgence Versus Restraint, Importance of Friends, and Consumer Attitudes Indulgence Versus Restraint and Sexual Relationships Indulgence Versus Restraint in the Workplace Indulgence Versus Restraint and the State Origins of Societal Differences in Indulgence Versus Restraint PART III 260 262 267 269 271 274 277 278 279 280 288 289 290 293 294 295 296 Cultures in Organizations 9 Pyramids, Machines, Markets, and Familles: Organizing Across Nations Implicit Models of Organizations Management Professors Are Human Culture and Organizational Structure: Elaborating on Mintzberg Planning, Control, and Accounting Corporate Governance and Business Goals Motivation Theories and Practices Leadership, Decision Making, and Empowerment Performance Appraisal and Management by Objectives Management Training and Organization Development Conclusion: Nationality Defines Organizational Rationality 301 302 307 312 315 320 327 331 334 336 337 10 The Elephant and the Stork: Organizational Cultures The Organizational Culture Craze Differences Between Organizational and National Cultures: The IRIC Project Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in the IRIC Project Results of the In-Depth Interviews: The SAS Case Results of the Survey: Six Dimensions of Organizational Cultures The Scope for Competitive Advantages in Cultural Matters Organizational Culture and Other Organizational Characteristics Organizational Subcultures Individual Perceptions of Organizational Cultures Gardens, Bouquets, and Flowers of Social Science Occupational Cultures Conclusions from the IRIC Research Project: Dimensions Versus Gestalts Managing (with) Organizational Culture PART IV 341 343 346 349 351 353 358 360 364 366 368 368 370 371 Implications 11 Intercultural Encounters Intended Versus Unintended Intercultural Conflict Culture Shock and Acculturation Ethnocentrism and Xenophilia Group Encounters: Auto- and Heterostereotypes Language and Humor The Influence of Communication Technologies Intercultural Encounters in Tourism Intercultural Encounters in Schools Minorities, Migrants, and Refugees Intercultural Negotiations Multinational Business Organizations Coordinating Multinationals: Structure Should Follow Culture Expanding Multinationals: International Mergers and Other Ventures International Marketing, Advertising, and Consumer Behavior 381 382 384 387 387 388 391 392 393 395 399 402 406 407 409 International Politics and International Organizations Economic Development, Nondevelopment, and Development Cooperation Learning Intercultural Communication Educating for Intercultural Understanding: Suggestions for Parents Spreading Multicultural Understanding: The Role of the Media Global Challenges Call for Intercultural Cooperation 12 The Evolution of Cultures A Time-Machine Journey Through History Five Million to One Million Years Ago: Lonely Planet One Million to Forty Thousand Years Ago: Ice and Fire Forty Thousand to Ten Thousand Years Ago: Creative Spark, Extermination Twelve Thousand to Seven Thousand Five Hundred Years Ago: Villages and Agriculture Seven Thousand Five Hundred Years Ago Until Now: Large-Scale Civil izations Sources of Cultural Diversity and Change The End of History? No! The Essence of Evolution Evolution: More than Genes Evolution Beyond Selfishness: Groups over Individuals Individuals and Institutions in the Stream of Life Evolution at Work Today The Future of Culture Notes Glossary Bibliography Name Index Subject Index 412 416 419 423 425 426 431 433 434 436 438 442 447 453 455 456 459 464 466 468 473 479 515 525 547 549

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