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Beyond oil and gas: the methanol economy

Author: Olah, George A. ; Goeppert, Alain ; Prakash, G.K. SuryaPublisher: Wiley-VCH 2009.Edition: 2nd updated and enlarged ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 334 p. : Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9783527324224Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Asia Campus
Main Collection
Print HC2000 .E6 O53 2009
(Browse shelf)
900202659
Available 900202659
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HC2000 .E6 O53 2009
(Browse shelf)
001272918
Available 001272918
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Beyond Oil and Gas The Methanol Economy Contents Preface to the Second Updated Edition Acronyms and Initialisms Units and their Abbreviations XI XIII XV 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5 6 6.1 6.2 7 7.1 7.2 Introduction 1 History of Coal in the Industrial Revolution and Beyond 11 History of Petroleum Oil and Natural Gas 19 Oil Extraction and Exploration 23 Natural Gas 24 Fossil Fuel Resources and Their Use 29 Coal 30 Petroleum Oil 35 Unconventional Oil Sources 39 Tar Sands 40 Oil Shale 41 Natural Gas 42 Coalbed Methane 49 Tight Sands and Shales 50 Methane Hydrates 50 Outlook 53 Diminishing Oil and Natural Gas Reserves 55 The Continuing Need for Carbon Fuels, Hydrocarbons and their Products 65 Fractional Distillation 68 Thermal Cracking 69 Fossil Fuels and Climate Change 77 Effects of Fossil Fuels on Climate Change 77 Mitigation 86 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.5.5 8.6 8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3 8.6.4 8.7 8.7.1 8.7.2 8.7.3 8.8 8.8.1 8.8.2 8.8.3 8.8.4 8.8.5 8.8.6 8.8.7 8.8.8 8.8.9 8.8.10 8.9 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 Renewable Energy Sources and Atomic Energy 91 Introduction 91 Hydropower 93 Geothermal Energy 98 Wind Energy 102 Solar Energy: Photovoltaic and Thermal 105 Electricity from Photovoltaic Conversion 106 Solar Thermal Power for Electricity Production 108 Electric Power from Saline Solar Ponds 110 Solar Thermal Energy for Heating 110 Economic Limitations of Solar Energy 111 Bioenergy 112 Electricity from Biomass 112 Liquid Biofuels 113 Biomethanol 117 Advantages and Limitation of Biofuels 117 Ocean Energy: Tidal, Wave and Thermal Power 118 Tidal Energy 118 Wave Power 120 Ocean Thermal Energy 120 Nuclear Energy 121 Energy from Nudear Fission Reactions 123 Breeder Reactors 128 The Need for Nudear Power 129 Economics 130 Safety 132 Radiation Hazards 133 Nuclear By-Products, Waste and Their Management 135 Emissions 136 Nudear Fusion 137 Nuclear Power. An Energy Source for the Future 140 Future Outlook 140 The Hydrogen Economy and its Limitations 143 Hydrogen and its Properties 143 Development of Hydrogen Energy 145 Production and Uses of Hydrogen 148 Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels 150 Hydrogen from Biomass 151 Photobiological Water Cleavage 152 Water Electrolysis 152 Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy 155 The Challenge of Hydrogen Storage 156 Liquid Hydrogen 156 Compressed Hydrogen 158 Metal Hydrides and Solid Absorbents 159 Other Means of Hydrogen Storage 160 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.8.1 9.8.2 9.8.3 9.8.4 9.8.5 9.9 10 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 Centralized or Decentralized Distribution of Hydrogen? 161 Hydrogen Safety 163 Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel 164 Fuel Cells 166 History 166 Fuel Cell Efficiency 167 Hydrogen-Based Fuel Cells 169 PEM Fuel Cells for Transportation 173 Regenerative Fuel Cells 175 Outlook 177 The "Methanol Economy": General Aspects 179 Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Fuels and Energy Carriers 185 Background and Properties 185 Chemical Uses of Methanol 187 Methanol as a Transportation Fuel 189 Development of Alcohols as Transportation Fuels 189 Methanol as Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) 193 Methanol as Fuel in Compression Ignition (Diesel) Engines 195 Dimethyl Ether as a Transportation Fuel 197 DME Fuel for Electricity Generation and as a Household Gas 200 Biodiesel Fuel 202 Advanced Methanol-Powered Vehicles 203 Hydrogen for Fuel Cells Based on Methanol Reforming 203 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) 207 Fuel Cells Based on Other Methanol Derived Fuels and Biofuel Cells 212 Regenerative Fuel Cell. 213 Methanol and DME as Marine Fuels 213 Methanol and DME for Static Power and Heat Generation 214 Methanol and DME Storage and Distribution" 216 Price of Methanol and DME 219 Safety of Methanol and DME 220 Emissions from Methanol- and DME-Powered Vehicles 225 Environmental Effects of Methanol and DME 227 Beneficial Effect of Chemical CO2 Recyding to Methanol on Climate Change 230 Production of Methanol: From Fossil Fuels and Bio-Sources to Chemical Carbon Dioxide Recycling 233 12.1 Methanol from Fossil Fuels 236 12.1.1 Production via Syn-Gas 236 12.1.2 Syn-Gas from Natural Gas 239 12.1.2.1 Steam Reforming of Methane 239 12.1.2.2 Partial Oxidation of Methane 240 12.1.2.3 Autothermal Reforming and Combination of Steam Reforming with Partial Oxidation 240 12.1.2.4 Syn-Gas from CO2 Reforming of Methane 241 12.1.3 Syn-Gas from Petroleum Oil and Higher Hydrocarbons 241 12.1.4 Syn-Gas from Coal 242 12.1.5 Economics of Syn-Gas Generation 242 12.2 Methanol through Methyl Formate 243 12.3 Methanol from Methane without Producing Syn-Gas 244 12.3.1 Direct Oxidation of Methane to Methanol 244 12.3.2 Catalytic Gas-Phase Oxidation of Methane 245 12.3.3 Liquid-Phase Oxidation of Methane to Methanol 247 12.3.4 Methane into Methanol Conversion through Manohalogenated Methanes 249 12.3.5 Microbial or Photochemical Conversion of Methane into Methanol 251 12.4 Methanol from Biomass, Including Cellulosic Sources 252 12.4.1 Methanol from Biogas 259 12.4.2 Aquaculture 261 12.4.2.1 Water Plants 261 12.4.2.2 Algae 262 12.5 Chemical Recyding of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol 264 12.5.1 Carbon Dioxide into Methanol Conversion with Methane 266 12.5.2 CO2 Conversion into Methanol with Bi-reforming of Methane 268 12.5.3 Dimethyl Ether Production from Syn-Gas or Carbon Dioxide 269 12.5.4 Combining Chemical or Electrochemical Reduction and Hydrogenation of CO2 271 12.5.5 Separating Carbon Dioxide from Industrial and Natural Sources for Chemical Recyding 273 12.5.6 Separation of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere 275 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 Methanol-Based Chemicals, Synthetic Hydrocarbons and Materials 279 Methanol-Based Chemical Products and Materials 279 Methyl tert-butyl Ether and DME 281 Methanol Conversion into Light Olefins and Synthetic Hydrocarbons 282 Methanol to Olefin (MTO) Processes 283 Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) Processes 285 Methanol-Based Proteins 287 Outlook 288 12 14 14.1 14.2 Conclusions and Outlook 289 Where We Stand Now 289 The "Methanol Economy", a Solution for the Future 291 References 297 For Further Reading and Information 317 Index 327

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