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Economic instruments as an environmental policy tool: the case of GCC countries

Author: Raouf, Mohamed A. Series: Gulf papers Publisher: Gulf Research Center, 2007.Language: EnglishDescription: 159 p. ; 21 cm.ISBN: 9948434617Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references
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Includes bibliographical references

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Economic Instruments as an Environmental Policy Tool: The Case of GCC Countries Contents Table of Illustrations......................................................................... 11 List of Acronyms and Abbreviations................................................ 13 Acknowledgments.............................................................................17 Executive Summary.......................................................................... 18 1) Environmental Policy................................................................... 23 1.1) Current Environmental Statusof the GCC Countries ...................23 1.2) Environmental Policy: Scope and Definition............................... 26 1.3) Environmental Policy Objectives ................................................ 28 1.4) Environmental Policy Classification.............................................31 1.5) Policy Failure, Market Failure and Environmental Policy........... 33 1.6) Environmental Policies in the GCC Countries............................. 36 2) Command-And-Control (CAC) and Economic Instruments (EIs)...........................................................................38 2.1) CAC Examples.............................................................................. 38 2.2) Economic Instruments (EIs)......................................................... 39 2.3) Objectives of EIs .......................................................................... 40 2.4) Classification of EIs...................................................................... 43 2.5) Local, Regional and International EIs.......................................... 46 2.6) Examples of EIs............................................................................ 52 2.7) Advantages and Disadvantages of CAC and EIs.......................... 63 3) Environmental Institutional Framework in the GCC................... 67 3.1) Environmental Institutions in the GCC.........................................69 3.2) Difficulties Facing Institutional Development............................. 70 3.3) Civil Society.................................................................................. 72 4) Environmental Law................................................................................. 75 4.1) Environmental Legislation in the GCC Countries........................ 77 4.2) Recent Environmental Law Changes............................................ 95 5) Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs)................................ 100 5.1) Benefits of MEAs....................................................................... 101 5.2) Limitations of MEAs.................................................................. 103 5.3) Multilateral Trade and Environmental Agreements................... 104 5.4) GCC Status in Relation to MEAs............................................... 105 6) Selected International Experiences in Implementing EIs ................... 111 6.1) Croatia......................................................................................... 111 6.2) Egypt........................................................................................... 112 6.3) Barbados..................................................................................... 118 6.4) Chie............................................................................................. 119 6.5) Kenya.......................................................................................... 119 6.6) France.......................................................................................... 120 6.7) Japan........................................................................................... 121 6.8) Germany...................................................................................... 122 6.9) United States............................................................................... 123 7) Prerequisites for the Implementation of EIs.............................. 125 7.1) Evaluating the Performance of EIs............................................. 126 7.2) Financing EIs.............................................................................. 127 8) Conclusion.................................................................................. 132 Annexes........................................................................................... 135 References....................................................................................... 155 About the Author............................................................................ 159

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