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Living in groups

Author: Krause, Jens ; Ruxton, Graeme D. Series: Oxford series in ecology and evolution Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP) 2002.Language: EnglishDescription: 210 p. : Graphs ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0198508174Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print QL751 .K73 2002
(Browse shelf)
001255010
Available 001255010
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Living in Groups Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Overview 1.2 A definition of groups 1.3 Book structure 1 1 2 4 6 6 8 8 9 10 12 12 13 13 17 17 17 19 19 20 21 22 23 23 23 25 32 35 37 37 37 2 The benefits of group formation 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Anti-predator vigilance 2.2.1 The classical many-eyes theory 2.2.2 How individual vigilance works 2.2.3 Information transfer between individuals 2.2.4 Some unanswered questions on group vigilance 2.2.5 Related issues 2.3 Dilution of risk 2.3.1 Avoidance, dilution, and abatement 2.3.2 Predator swamping 2.3.3 The Selfish herd 2.3.4 Defence against parasites 2.4 Predator confusion 2.4.1 Theory 2.4.2 Empirical support for theoretical predictions 2.4.3 Cognitive limitations 2.4.4 Communal defence against predators 2.4.5 Predator learning 2.5 Foraging benefits to grouping 2.5.1 Benefits for predators 2.5.2 Finding food 2.6 Finding a mate 2.7 Conserving heat and water 2.8 Reducing the energetic costs of movement 2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.2 Movement in water 2.8.3 Movement in air 2.9 Summary and conclusions 39 40 41 41 42 46 47 47 48 48 49 50 51 51 52 52 53 54 55 55 55 56 56 58 58 60 61 62 63 63 68 68 69 69 71 73 73 74 75 3 Some costs to grouping 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Increased attack rate on larger groups 3.3 Foraging in a group 3.3.1 Kleptoparasitism 3.3.2 Aggression more generally 3.3.3 Pseudo-interference 3.3.4 Shadow interference of sit and wait predators 3.3.5 Just getting in each other's way 3.3.6 Prey response to detected predators 3.3.7 A note on generality 3.4 Increased parasite burdens 3.5 Misdirected parental care 3.5.1 Cuckoldry 3.5.2 Brood parasitism and adoption 3.6 Summary and conclusions 4 The size of a group 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Combining costs and benefits of grouping 4.1.2 An illustrative example 4.1.3 The shape of the fitness function 4.2 Are optimal group sizes likely to be seen in nature? 4.2.1 An argument why groups should be larger than optimal 4.2.2 Refinements of the argument 4.2.3 The role of relatedness 4.2.4 The influence of competition 4.2.5 The effect of dominance hierarchies 4.2.6 Empirical evidence for active recruitment to foraging groups 4.3 Observed group sizes in nature 4.3.1 Social carnivores 4.3.2 Data from other taxa 4.3.3 Distribution of group sizes 4.4 Summary and conclusions 5 Spatial heterogeneity of costs and benefits within groups 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Group structure and spatial positions: definitions 5.3 Cause and effect relationships 5.4 Energy gains and losses 5.4.1 Energy intake 5.4.2 Energy expenditure 5.4.3 Net-energy payoff 5.5 Predation risk 5.5.1 Stationary groups 5.5.2 Mobile groups 5.6 Parasites 5.7 Reproductive success 5.8 Dominance status 5.9 Trade-offs between different fitness currencies 5.10 Summary and conclusions 77 77 78 79 80 80 80 83 83 84 85 86 87 87 88 89 90 93 93 94 96 96 97 97 98 99 100 100 101 102 102 104 104 104 106 106 110 113 119 121 6 Heterogeneity and homogeneity of group membership 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Theory of assortativeness 6.3 The influence of predation on assortment 6.3.1 Predator preference for odd prey (the oddity effect) 6.3.2 Evidence for the oddity effect from prey behaviour 6.3.3 Predator preference for common prey 6.3.4 Frequency-independent preferences 6.3.5 Reduced vigilance in mixed species groups 6.3.6 Differential anti-predatory abilities within a group 6.4 Evidence for the evolution of group mate preferences in prey 6.4.1 The role of species 6.4.2 The role of body length and colour 6.4.3 The role of parasitism 6.4.4 The role of familiarity 6.4.5 The role of kinship 6.5 Multi-species foraging groups 6.6 Consequences of inter-individual differences for optimal group size 6.7 Summary and conclusions 7 Evolutionary considerations 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Individual differences: artificial selection 7.3 Population differences 7.3.1 Testing for population differences 7.4 Species differences 7.4.1 Pathways towards the evolution of groups 7.5 Groups as units of selection 7.6 Summary and conclusions 8 Environmental effects on grouping behaviour 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Ontogenetic constraints on grouping: fish shoaling behaviour 8.3 Ontogenetic shift in sociality: the spiny lobster 8.4 The role of rearing conditions: caste determination and division of labour in the honey bee 8.5 Behavioural changes induced by crowding: the desert locust 8.6 The role of learning 8.7 Parasite-mediated changes in behaviour 8.8 Summary and conclusions 123 123 123 125 126 128 130 132 135 137 137 137 138 140 140 140 142 143 145 146 146 147 150 151 151 151 152 153 155 156 156 157 157 158 159 189 199 9 Mechanisms 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Recognition of suitable group mates 9.3 Inter-individual distance regulation: attraction and repulsion 9.4 Group formation 9.5 Collective behaviour 9.5.1 Locomotion 9.5.2 Positioning behaviour and leadership 9.5.3 Group structure 9.5.4 Collective foraging 9.5.5 Teams 9.6 Assessment of group size and group composition 9.7 Group size distributions 9.8 Summary and conclusions 10 Conclusions 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Group size 10.2.1 Individual-based models of group size 10.2.2 Population density and group size 10.3 Comparative studies 10.4 Evolution of grouping 10.5 Group composition 10.6 Signalling 10.7 Short-term behavioural change 10.8 Concluding remarks References Author Index General Index

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