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Energy technology transitions for industry: strategies for the next industrial revolution

Corporate author:OECD ; International Energy Agency (IEA)Publisher: International Energy Agency (IEA) 2009.Language: EnglishDescription: 321 p. : Graphs/Ill./Maps ; 27 cm.ISBN: 9789264068582Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and glossary
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HC2000 .E6 E65 2009
(Browse shelf)
001252538
Available 001252538
Book Middle East Campus
Main Collection
Print HC2000 .E6 E65 2009
(Browse shelf)
500000784
Available 500000784
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and glossary

Digitized

Energy Technology Transitions For Industry Strategies for the Next Industrial Revolution Table of Contents Foreword ....................................................................... 3 Acknowledgements ..................................................... 5 Tables of contents ....................................................... 7 List of figures ................................................................ 13 List of tables.................................................................. 19 Executive summary.................................................... 23 Chapter 1 Industry Overview 29 Introduction............................................................................. 30 Energy and CO2 savings potentiel with best available technologies............................................................................ 31 Industry scenarios ................................................................. Demand projections for industry Industrial energy use Electricity use in industry 32 33 34 35 CO2 Emissions in industry..................................................... 36 Technologies for reducing direct CO2 emissions 38 Regional implications ........................................................... 41 Investment costs in industry................................................ 43 RDDandD needs......................................................................... 45 Policy implications ............................................................... 46 Chapter 2 Iron and Steel 49 Introduction............................................................................ 50 Trends in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions ................ 51 Best available technology and technical savings potentiel 52 RandD programmes.................................................................. 56 Scenario analysis .................................................................. 57 Cost of CO2 reductions in the iron and steel sector 63 New technology options........................................................ 65 New coal-based processes Smelting reduction processes Coal-based direct reduced iron (DRI) Fuel switching Gas-based DRI Use of charcoal Use of waste plastic Electricity-based steel-making Use of hydrogen CO2 capture and storage Materials use and efficiency 65 65 66 67 67 68 69 69 70 70 Material flows and material flow optimisation..................... 72 73 Conclusion: transition pathway for the iron and steel sector . . . 74 Chapter 3 Cernent 77 Introduction............................................................................. 78 Cernent production process and technologies................... 78 Trends in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions ................ 81 Technology and fuel consumption in cernent production Alternative fuel use in cernent production CO2 emissions from cernent production 82 83 85 Best available technology and technical savings potential. . 86 RandD programmes................................................................... 90 Scenario analysis .................................................................. 90 Costs of CO2 reduction in the cernent sector CO2 capture and storage Post-combustion technologies: absorption CCS abatement colts in cernent kilns New low-carbon cements 97 New technology options........................................................ 98 99 100 101 101 Oxyfuel technology as part of CO2 capture and storage 99 Conclusion: transition pathway for the cernent sector.... 103 Chapter 4 Chemicals and petrochemicals 105 Introduction.......................................................................... 106 Trends in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions .............. 107 Best available technology and technical savings potentiel 115 Process integration and process intensification at site level Combined heat and power (CHP) Recycling and energy recovery Age of capital stock and transition to BPT 117 117 117 118 Scenario analysis ................................................................ 119 Costs of CO2 reduction in the chemical and petrochemical sector125 New technology options...................................................... 125 New olefin production technologies Other catalytic processes with improvement potential Membranes and other separation technologies Future process intensification potentials Bio-based chemicals and plastics 125 127 128 129 129 CO2 capture and storage in the chemical and petrochemical sector 130 Material fiows and material flow optimisation................... 130 Conclusion: transition pathway for the chemical and petrochemical sector .................................................. 1 32 Chapter 5 Pulp and paper 135 Introduction.......................................................................... 136 Pulp and paper processes................................................... 137 Recovered paper 138 Trends in energy efficiency and CO2 emissions .............. 138 Energy efficiency index methodology Data issues Age of the capital stock and transition to BAT 138 141 145 Best available technology and technical savings potentials . 143 Scenario analysis ................................................................ 146 Costs of CO2 reduction in the pulp and paper sector 151 New technology options....................................................... 152 Black liquor gasification Lignin production from black liquor Biomass gasification with synfuels production Biorefinery concepts CO2 capture and storage (CCS) Paper-drying technologies 1 52 153 153 1 53 154 115 Material flows and demand analysis .................................. 155 Conclusion: transition pathway for the pulp and paper sector 158 Chapter 6 Aluminium 161 Introduction........................................................................... 162 Trends in energy efficiency and GHG emissions.............. 163 Mining Alumina refining Anode production Smelting Recycled production 164 164 166 166 169 Best available technology and technical savings potentiels 169 Scenario analysis ................................................................. 171 Costs of CO2 reductions in the aluminium sector Improvements to the Hall-Héroult tell Wetted draned cathodes Inert anodes Alternative technologies Carbothermic reduction Kaolinite reduction Carbon capture and storage 175 176 177 177 177 177 178 178 New technology options....................................................... 176 Aluminium markets............................................................... 178 Conclusion: transition pathway for the aluminium sector 179 Chapter 7 Cross-cutting options 183 Introduction........................................................................... 184 Biomass and biomass-waste use ....................................... 185 Systems optimisation .......................................................... 191 Electric motor-driven systems Steam systems Combined heat and power (CHP) CHP technologies CHP applications CHP barriers and policy solutions 191 193 195 196 196 197 Carbon capture and storage (CCS) .................................... 198 Recycling .............................................................................. 204 Use of recycled aluminium Use of scrap iron and steel Use of recovered paper Use of recycled plastic 204 206 207 207 Municipal solid waste and by-products ............................. 208 Reducing other GHG emissions.......................................... 209 Chapter 8 Impacts on materials demand 211 Introduction........................................................................... 212 Power sector ......................................................................... 213 Materials needs for PV technologies Base year (2005) estimates Future scenarios Vehicle sales and total materials use by scenario 217 220 222 224 Transport sector ................................................................... 219 Building sector...................................................................... 229 Chapter 9 Policy implications 235 Introduction........................................................................... 236 Energy efficiency policies ................................................... 236 Research, development and demonstration...................... 240 Priority near-term RDandD targets for the development of lower-carbon technologies Public-private partnerships 241 242 Emissions trading................................................................. 244 The impacts of ETSs on competitiveness and carbon leakage Options to reducing carbon leakage Implementing rectoral approaches Coverage and data availability Domestic implementation issues Carbon leakage Challenges on the demand side Sectoral approaches: the logical next step for international action? 257 Conclusions .......................................................................... 257 Annex A Regional detail of industry analysis Annex B Annex C Annex D Annex E Energy and CO2 indicators Framework assumptions Definitions, abbreviations, acronyms and units References 259 271 283 289 305 247 249 253 254 255 255 255 Sectoral approaches............................................................. 250

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