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Nonverbal communication in human interaction

Author: Knapp, Mark L. ; Hall, Judith A.Publisher: Thomson, 2006. ; Wadsworth, 2006.Language: EnglishDescription: 490 p. : Ill./Photos ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0534625630Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Asia Campus
Main Collection
Print BF637 .N66 K63 2006
(Browse shelf)
900194259
Available 900194259
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction Contents PREFACE xi PART ONE: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 1 1. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: BASIC PERSPECTIVES 3 Perspective 1: Defining Nonverbal Communication 5 Encoding 5 Decoding 6 Perspective 2: Classifying Nonverbal Behavior 7 The Communication Environment 7 The Communicators' Physical Characteristics 8 Body Movement and Position 8 Perspective 3: Nonverbal Communication in the Total Communication Process 10 Repeating 12 Conflicting 12 Complementing 15 Substituting 16 Accenting/Moderating 16 Regulating 16 Perspective 4: The History of Nonverbal Studies 18 Perspective 5: Nonverbal Communication in Everyday Life 21 Summary 23 2. THE ROOTS OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR 31 The Development of Nonverbal Behavior Across Evolutionary Time Evidence From Sensory Deprivation 34 Evidence From Infants 37 Evidence From Twin Studies 41 Evidence From Nonhuman Primates 45 Evidence From Multicultural Studies 53 Summary 57 33 3. THE ABILITY TO RECEIVE AND SEND NONVERBAL SIGNALS Methods for Improving Nonverbal Skills 65 Measuring Accuracy of Decoding and Encoding Nonverbal Cues 68 Standardized Tests of Decoding Ability 70 Characteristics of Skilled Nonverbal Receivers 74 Self-Appraisals and Explicit Knowledge of Nonverbal Cues 75 Gender 75 Age 76 General Cognitive Ability 77 Other Personal Correlates 77 63 Task Factors Affecting Nonverbal Receiving Accuracy Characteristics of Accurate Nonverbal Senders 81 Putting Decoding and Encoding Together 84 On Being an Observer of Nonverbal Communication The Fallibility of Human Perception 87 Summary 90 81 86 PART TWO: THE COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT 101 4. THE EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION 103 Perceptions of Our Surroundings 105 Perceptions of Formality 105 Perceptions of Warmth 106 Perceptions of Privacy 106 Perceptions of Familiarity 106 Perceptions of Constraint 107 Perceptions of Distance 107 Reacting to Environments 107 Perceptions of Time 108 Time as Location 109 Time as Duration 109 Time as Intervals 109 Time as Patterns of Intervals 110 The Natural Environment 110 Other People in the Environment 113 Architectural Design and Movable Objects 114 Color 117 Sound 119 Lighting 120 Movable Objects 120 Structure and Design 124 Regulating Environments and Communication 128 Summary 129 5. THE EFFECTS OF TERRITORY AND PERSONAL SPACE ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION 138 The Concept of Territoriality 138 Territoriality: Invasion and Defense 139 Density and Crowding 143 The Effects of High Density on Human Beings 145 Coping with High Density 146 Conversational Distance 147 Sex 149 Age 150 Cultural and Ethnic Background 151 Topic or Subject Matter 152 Setting for the Interaction 153 Physical Characteristics 153 Attitudinal and Emotional Orientation 153 Characteristics of the Interpersonal Relationship 154 Personality Characteristics 154 Seating Behavior and Spatial Arrangements in Small Groups Leadership 155 Dominance 156 Task 157 Sex and Acquaintance 158 Introversion--Extraversion 160 Summary 161 155 PART THREE: THE COMMUNICATORS 171 6. THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION 173 Our Body: Its General Attractiveness 174 Dating and Marriage 175 On the Job 178 Persuading Others 179 Self-Esteem 180 Antisocial Behavior 180 The Power of Physical Attractiveness: Some Important Qualifications 181 The Effects of Interaction 181 The Effects of Other Factors 182 Changing Standards Over Time 183 Our Body: Its Specific Features 183 The Face 183 Body Shape 187 Height 192 Body Image 194 Body Color 195 Body Smell 196 Body Hair 198 Our Body: Clothes And Other Artifacts 202 Clothing and Communication 203 Functions of Clothing 204 Clothing as Information About the Person 205 Effects of Clothing on the Wearer 206 Clothing and Personality 207 Artifacts and Body Decorations 208 Summary 209 PART FOUR: THE COMMUNICATORS' BEHAVIOR 223 7. THE EFFECTS OF GESTURE AND POSTURE ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION 225 Speech-Independent Gestures 226 Speech-Related Gestures 236 Referent-Related Gestures 237 Speaker's-Relationship-to-the-Referent Gestures 237 Punctuation Gestures 238 Interactive Gestures 239 Gesture Frequency 241 The Coordination of Gesture, Posture, and Speech 243 Self-Synchrony 244 Interaction Synchrony 246 Summary 253 8. THE EFFECTS OF TOUCH ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION 264 Touching and Human Development 265 Who Touches Whom, Where, When, and How Much? 267 Different Types of Touching Behavior 270 The Meanings and Impact of Interpersonal Touch274 Touch as Positive Affect 274 Touch as Negative Affect 275 Touch as Play 275 Touch as Influence 275 Touch as Interaction Management 276 Touch as Physiological Stimulus 276 Touch as Interpersonal Responsiveness 276 Touch as Task Related 277 Touch as Healing 277 Touch as Symbolism 278 Contextual Factors in the Meaning of Interpersonal Touch 281 Touch--A Powerful Unconscious Force in Interaction 282 Self-Touching 284 Summary 287 9. THE EFFECTS OF THE FACE ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION The Face and Personality Judgments 295 The Face and Interaction Management 296 Channel Control 297 Complementing or Qualifying Other Behavior297 Replacing Spoken Messages 297 The Face and Expressions of Emotion 298 The Face--a Complex Stimulus 299 The Facial Emotion Controversy 303 Measuring the Face 305 Judging Facial Expressions of Emotion 312 Emotions Inferred from the Face 315 Physiology and the Face 321 295 The Social Impact of Facial Expressions 325 Summary 32810 10. THE EFFECTS OF EYE BEHAVIOR ON HUMAN COMMUNICATION 338 Gaze and Mutual Gaze 340 Functions of Gazing 341 Regulating the Flow of Communication 342 Monitoring Feedback 343 Reflecting Cognitive Activity 343 Expressing Emotions 344 Communicating the Nature of the Interpersonal Relationship 349 Conditions Influencing Gazing Patterns 352 Distance 352 Physical Characteristics 352 Personal and Personality Characteristics 352 Topics and Tasks 355 Cultural Background and Racial Attitudes 357 Pupil Dilation and Constriction 358 Summary 361 11. THE EFFECTS OF VOCAL CUES THAT ACCOMPANY SPOKEN WORDS 370 The Ingredients and Methods of Studying Paralanguage 372 Vocal Cues and Speaker Recognition 375 Vocal Cues and Personality 377 Vocal Cues and Group Perceptions 380 Vocal Cues and Judgments of Sociodemographic Characteristics 381 Sex 381 Age 382 Social Class/Status 382 Target Effects 383 Vocal Cues and Emotion 384 Vocal Cues, Comprehension, and Persuasion 389 Vocal Cues, Comprehension, and Retention 389 Vocal Cues and Persuasion 390 Vocal Cues and Turn Taking in Conversations 391 Turn Yielding 392 Turn Requesting 392 Turn Maintaining 392 Turn Denying 393 Hesitations, Pauses, Silence, and Speech 393 Location or Placement of Pauses 393 Types of Pauses 394 Reasons Why Pauses Occur 395 Influence and Coordination within the Dyad 395 Silence 397 Summary 398 PART FIVE: COMMUNICATING IMPORTANT MESSAGES 409 12. USING NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR IN DAILY INTERACTION 411 Communicating Intimacy 412 Courtship Behavior 412 Quasi-Courtship Behavior 414 Liking Behavior (Immediacy) 414 Being Close in Close Relationships 417 Mutual Influence 418 Communicating Dominance/Status 419 Managing the Interaction 423 Greeting Behavior 423 Turn-Taking Behavior 424 Leave-Taking Behavior 427 Communicating Our Identity 428 Personal Identity 429 Social Identity 431 Deceiving Others 436 A Perspective for Communicators 439 Summary 439 13. NONVERBAL MESSAGES IN SPECIAL CONTEXTS Advertising Messages 453 Political Messages 456 Teacher--Student Messages 460 Cultural Messages 462 High-Contact versus Low-Contact Cultures 462 Individualism versus Collectivism 463 High-Context versus Low-Context Cultures 464 Similarities Across Cultures 464 Therapeutic Settings 465 Summary 468 452 Photo Credits Author Index Subject Index 476 477 484

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