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Strategy and policy formation: an integrative approach

Author: Paine, Frank T. ; Naumes, WilliamPublisher: Saunders, 1974.Language: EnglishDescription: 296 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0721670474Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HD30.28 .P35 1974
(Browse shelf)
001265125
Available 001265125
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Strategy Policy Formation An Integrative Approach Table of Contents 1 POLICY FORMATION AND THE CHOICE PROCESS.................... 1 Questions to Ask............................................................................... 3 What Is Policy Formation?.................................................................. 4 What Are Missions, Objectives, Policies, Strategies, Programs and Roles? How Are They Related to Each Other? ................................................................................... 5 Basic Missions......................................................................... 6 Organizational Objectives........................................................ 6 Policies ................................................................................... 6 Strategies................................................................................ 7 Programs, Roles and Structures............................................. 8 Need for Coherent Means-End Chain .................................... 9 The Choice Process­Some Ideas on What Should Happen ........................................................................................ 10 Normative Framework for Policy Formation.......................... 13 The Choice Process­Some Ideas on What Actually Happens....................................................................................... 15 Theories Relevant to the Choice Process................................... 18 Overview of Decision Theories­Normative and Descriptive.................................................................................... 18 Group Theory and Elite Theory............................................. 20 A Case Study.................................................................................... 20 Some Ideas on the Univis Case....................................................... 21 Summary.......................................................................................... 22 Discussion Questions....................................................................... 23 Appendix. Univis, Inc. ...................................................................... 24 2 CONCEPTUALIZING THE POLICY FORMATION PROCESS...... 44 Policy Formation and Decision Making............................................. 44 A Descriptive Model of the Policy-Formation Process...................... 47 Inputs­ Environmental Forces.............................................. 49 Structure­Roles and Programs............................................. 50 Self-interests............................................................... 51 Political Resources...................................................... 53 Interaction of Structure and Environmental Pressures .......................................................................... 54 Circular Effects of Policy Formation....................................... 57 Applying the Model to Business and Public Bodies............................................................................... 58 Illustration of Model--A Role Play......................................... 59 Social Responsibility and the Model--A Debate................... 61 Summary......................................................................................... 63 Intergroup Policy Exercise............................................................... 64 Discussion Questions...................................................................... 65 3 LEARNING ABOUT POLICY......................................................... 67 Case Study...................................................................................... 69 The Case System in Business Education............................. 70 Case Analysis....................................................................... 72 Using the Case Method......................................................... 72 The Diagnostic Process.................................................................. 75 Diagnosis--Case Study........................................................ 76 The Live Case................................................................................. 79 Field Projects................................................................................... 80 Field Research................................................................................ 83 Dynamic Computer Models............................................................. 88 Role Playing ................................................................................... 90 Timing a Case in the Future with Science Fiction .......................... 93 Summary......................................................................................... 94 Discussion Questions...................................................................... 95 4 ASSESSMENT GUIDES................................................................. 97 Objectives of Assessment of Policy Formation............................... 98 Use of Guides.................................................................................. 98 Framework for Assessing Policy Formation.................................... 99 Part A. The Current Situation.... ...................................... 101 Current Organizational Mission and Current Basis of Support .................................................... 101 Organizational Objectives and Outcomes................. 106 Policy-generating Structure....................................... 111 Part B. The Changing Situation............................................. 119 Environmental Forces--Problems, Opportunities, Demands......................................... 119 Economic Considerations................................ 119 Technological Advances.................................. 121 Social Influences............................................. 122 Political Inputs................................................. 123 Competitive Factors......................................... 124 Social Responsibility........................................ 125 Summary......................................................................................... 129 Discussion Questions...................................................................... 129 Appendix 1. A Program for Analyzing Some Aspects of the Present Financial Conditions of the Organization.................. 131 Appendix 2. A Program for Determining Top Management Effectiveness Dimensions...................................... 140 5 REFORMULATING CORPORATE STRATEGY: OBJECTIVES FOR CHANGE AND THE ACTION PLAN............ 143 Outline of Corporate Strategy......................................................... 144 Formulating Objectives for Change................................................ 145 Priority of Objectives .......................................................... 149 Making Trade-offs on Objectives........................................ 149 Problems to Overcome....................................................... 150 The Action Plan: Setting Strategic Alternatives.............................. 152 Developing and Profiling Alternatives ................................ 153 Major Opportunities................................................... 153 Obvious Limitations................................................... 155 Narrowing the Choice.............................................. 155 Synergistic Possibilities............................................. 156 Strategic Changes and Corporate Policies ........................ 157 Detailing Provisions for Procuring and Allocating Resources: Linking Overall Strategy with Operations................................................................ 161 A Computer Program for Reformulating Corporate Strategy...................................................................................... 166 Summary........................................................................................ 168 Discussion Questions..................................................................... 169 6 ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT METHODSAN ACTION-RESEARCH PROGRAM......................................... 172 Why Assessment and Development?........................................... 173 Evaluation Approaches ................................................................ 174 What Is an Organization Development Approach to Policy Formation? ..................................................................... 177 Action-Research Program ............................................................. 179 Use and Limitations of Methods.................................................... 179 Information Gathering and Processing.......................................... 181 Forecasts............................................................................ 183 Publications and Reports.................................................... 184 Informal Information Networks............................................ 185 Observation ........................................................................ 188 Interviews............................................................................ 189 Interview Item Content........................................................ 191 Sample of Structured Interview........................................... 193 Questionnaire ..................................................................... 197 Questionnaire Item Content................................................ 198 Content Related to Organizational Effectiveness............... 199 Policy-Formation Practice Questionnaire............................ 200 Breakout of Returns and Use of Results ............................ 203 Market Segmentation Breakouts......................................... 204 Summary........................................................................................ 206 Discussion Questions..................................................................... 208 7 MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND COMPUTER PROGRAMS....... 210 Use of Management Science Approaches in Strategy Formation................................................................................... 211 Quantitative Problems in Policy .......................................... 212 Discounting and Present Value........................................... 212 Personal Probability............................................................ 213 Case Problem I.................................................................... 214 Establishing Priorities and Rates of Return ........................ 215 Cost of Delay....................................................................... 215 Tracing Decisions into the Future ....................................... 216 Case Problem II................................................................... 217 "What If" Questions............................................................. 218 Forecasting Models and Methods....................................... 220 Simulations.......................................................................... 222 Combining Expert Opinion.................................................. 224 Reasons for Success and Failure of Management Science Programs...................................................................... 225 Computer-Aided Decision Making................................................. 228 Applications of Computers.................................................. 229 Creativity and the Computer................................................ 229 Complex Systems............................................................... 230 Human Reaction to Complex Systems................................ 230 Summary........................................................................................ 231 Discussion Questions.................................................................... 233 Appendix 1. Solution to Problem 1 ................................................ 235 Appendix 2. Solution to Problem 2................................................. 236 8 THE ACTION THRUST IN STRATEGY FORMATION: DEVELOPING INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INVOLVEMENT.............................................................. 237 Patterns for Effective Change and Implementation........................ 238 Individual and Group Problem Solving........................................... 241 Overall Structuring of the Activity.................................................... 243 Timing of the Activity....................................................................... 245 Selecting Problem-Solving Situations............................................. 246 Types of Structured Activities­Individual and Group...................... 248 Strategy Formation Process................................................ 249 Assessment of Leverage Points.......................................... 249 Manager Functioning........................................................... 250 Stating and Analyzing Objectives ....................................... 251 Priority Setting and Action Planning.................................... 251 Progress Review................................................................. 251 Effective Group Sessions............................................................... 253 Feed-in of Action Research and Management Science Data.............................................................................. 254 Questions and Answers Regarding the Action Components............................................................................... 258 Summary........................................................................................ 263 Discussion Questions..................................................................... 263 Appendix 1. Questionnaire on Managerial Functioning.................. 266 Appendix 2. Organizational Effectiveness Form ............................ 270 9 STRATEGY AND STRUCTURE................................................... 272 Trends in Strategy and Structure ................................................. 272 Designing the Organization .......................................................... 274 Environmental Demands..................................................... 275 Related Influences on Design ............................................ 276 Differentiating by Organizational Level............................... 278 Keeping the Corporate Strategy in Mind............................. 280 Overall Summary........................................................................... 281 Practical Problems for You to Solve.................................... 281 Questions to Answer........................................................... 282 Policy Makers...................................................................... 283 Discussion Questions.................................................................... 284 Appendix. Some Action Steps........................................................ 285 Author Index............................................................................................. 289 Subject Index............................................................................................ 293

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