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Essentials of behavioral research: methods and data analysis

Author: Rosenthal, Robert ; Rosnow, Ralph L.Publisher: McGraw-Hill, 2008.Edition: 3rd ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 842 p. : Graphs/Ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9780073531960Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Europe Campus
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Print BF76.5 .R674 2008
(Browse shelf)
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Includes bibliographical references and index


Essentials of Behavioral Research Methods and Data Analysis Contents Preface PART I CONCEPTUAL AND ETHICAL FOUNDATIONS Chapter 1 The Spirit of Behavioral Research Science and the Search for Knowledge What Do Behavioral Researchers Really Know? Social Constructionism Contextualism/Perspectivism Evolutionary Epistemology Peirce's Four Ways of Knowing Rhetoric, Perceptibility, and Aesthetics Limitations of the Four Supports of Conviction Behavioral Research Defined Three Broad Research Orientations The Descriptive Research Orientation The Relational Research Orientation The Experimental Research Orientation Empirical Principles as Probabilistic Assertions Orienting Habits of Good Scientific Practice xix 1 3 3 6 7 9 12 13 15 18 18 21 23 25 29 32 34 37 37 38 Chapter 2 Contexts of Discovery and Justification Inspiration and Explanation Theories and Hypotheses Sources of Inspiration and Insight Serendipity in Behavioral Research Molding Ideas Into Working Hypotheses 39 42 43 Positivism, Falsificationism, and Conventionalism Type I and Type II Decision Errors Statistical Significance and the Effect Size Two Families of Effect Sizes Interval Estimates Around Effect Sizes Summing Up 48 53 55 56 58 59 Chapter 3 Ethical Considerations, Dilemmas, and Guidelines Puzzles and Problems A Delicate Balancing Act Historical Context of the American Psychological Association Code The Belmont Report, Federal Regulations, and the Institutional Review Board Principle I: Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy Principle II: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Principle III: Justice Principle IV: Trust Principle V: Fidelity and Scientific Integrity Costs, Utilities, and Institutional Review Boards Scientific and Societal Responsibilities 61 61 63 64 67 69 71 74 76 77 79 82 PART II OPERATIONALIZATION AND MEASUREMENT OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES Chapter 4 Reliability and Validity of Measurements Random and Systematic Error Assessing Stability and Equivalence Internal-Consistency Reliability and Spearman-Brown KR20 and Cronbach's Alpha Effective Reliability of Judges Effective Cost of Judges Effective Cost of Items Interrater Agreement and Reliability Cohen's Kappa Replication in Research Validity Criteria in Assessment Convergent and Discriminant Validity Test Validity, Practical Utility, and the Taylor-Russell Tables Relationship of Validity to Reliability 85 87 87 89 92 94 98 100 102 103 105 111 113 115 117 119 Chapter 5 Observations, Judgments, and Composite Variables Observing, Classifying, and Evaluating Observing While Participating 123 123 124 Maximizing Credibility and Serendipity Organizing and Sense-Making in Ethnographic Research Interpreter and Observer Biases Unobtrusive Observations and Nonreactive Measurements Selecting the Most Appropriate Judges Choosing the Number of Response Alternatives Effects of Guessing and Omissions on Accuracy Intrinsic Factors and the Level of Accuracy Applications of Categorical Judgments Category Scales and Rating Scales Numerical, Graphic, and Magnitude Ratings Rating Biases and Their Control Bipolar Versus Unipolar Scales Forming Composite Variables Forming Multiple Composites Quantifying the Clarity of Composites 125 127 128 130 134 137 138 140 141 145 146 150 151 151 154 156 160 160 163 165 167 171 172 174 176 177 178 179 181 182 185 Chapter 6 Questionnaires, Interviews, and Diaries Concerns About Self-Report Data Open-Ended Versus Structured Items Critical Incident Technique Stages in Developing Interview Protocols Research Interviews by Telephone Developing Research Questionnaires Defensiveness, Inconsistency, and Yea-Saying Cross-Cultural Questionnaire and Interview Research One-Dimensional and Multidimensional Attitude Scales Semantic Differentials for Attitudinal Meaning Q-Sorts for Subjectivity Ratings Likert Method of Item Analysis Thurstone Equal-Appearing Intervals Method Memory and the Use of Self-Recorded Diaries PART III THE LOGIC OF RESEARCH DESIGNS Chapter 7 Randomized Controlled Experiments and Causal Inference Experimentation in Science Randomized Experimental Designs Characteristics of Randomization The Philosophical Puzzle of Causality Contiguity, Priority, and Constant Conjunction Four Types of Experimental Control Mill's Methods of Agreement and Difference Between-Group Designs and Mill's Joint Method 187 189 189 190 193 196 198 200 201 203 Independent, Dependent, and Moderator Variables Solomon's Extended Control Group Design Threats to Internal Validity Threats to External Validity Statistical Conclusion and Construct Validity Subject and Experimenter Artifacts Demand Characteristics and Their Control Interactional Experimenter Effects Experimenter Expectancy Effects and Their Control Concluding Commentary 204 206 209 212 215 216 220 223 226 230 Chapter 8 Nonrandomized Research and Functional Relationships Nonrandomized and Quasi-Experimental Studies Nonequivalent Groups and Historical Controls Interrupted Time Series and the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Single-Case Experimental Designs Cross-Lagged Correlational Designs Invisible Variables and the Mediation Problem Path Analysis and Causal Inference The Cohort in Longitudinal Research Different Forms of Cohort Studies Subclassification on Propensity Scores Multiple Confounding Covariates 233 233 235 238 239 242 245 246 250 252 256 257 Chapter 9 Randomly and Nonrandomly Selected Sampling Units Sampling a Small Part of the Whole Bias and Instability in Surveys Simple Random-Sampling Plans Improving Accuracy in Random Sampling Confidence Intervals for Population Estimates Speaking of Confidence Intervals Other Selection Procedures Nonresponse Bias and Its Control Studying the Volunteer Subject Characteristics of the Volunteer Subject Implications for the Interpretation of Research Findings Situational Correlates and the Reduction of Volunteer Bias The Problem of Missing Data Procedures for Dealing With Missing Data 260 260 262 264 266 269 270 271 273 276 278 284 285 288 289 PART IV FUNDAMENTALS OF DATA ANALYSIS Chapter 10 Describing, Displaying, and Exploring Data Descriptions of Sampling Units Frequency Diagrams and Stem-and-Leaf Displays Box Plots Comparing Distributions Back to Back Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Spread The Normal Distribution Standard Scores Data Not Distributed Normally Precision of Estimating Population Means Defining Outliers Coping With Outliers Exploring the Data 291 293 293 294 297 298 299 300 304 305 306 307 309 310 311 Chapter 11 Correlation Pearson r Proportion of Variance Interpretation of Correlation Binomial Effect-Size Display Confidence Intervals for Effect-Size Correlations Small Correlations, But Important Effects Countemull Values of Effect Sizes Spearman Rank Correlation Ranks as a Transformation Observations of Disproportionate Influence Point-Biserial Correlation Exact Tests for Rho Phi Coefficient Curvilinear (Quadratic) Correlation Five Product-Moment Correlations Comparing Correlations Considering Third Variables Effects of Variability on Correlations 314 314 316 318 322 324 328 330 332 333 336 339 340 344 346 347 347 349 Chapter 12 Statistical Power and Effect Size Revisited Why Assess Statistical Power? The Neglect of Statistical Power The requivalent Statistic Cohen's Multipurpose Power Tables The t Test for Comparing Two Means The Significance of a Product-Moment r Differences Between Correlation Coefficients 354 354 357 359 360 363 366 369 The Test That a Proportion is .50 The Difference Between Proportions The Focused Chi-Square Test F Tests for Focused Comparisons Additional Strategies for Improving Power 373 373 374 375 376 PART V ONE-WAY DESIGNS Chapter 13 Comparing Means by Standard t Tests Gosset and the t Test Two Components of t Tests Maximizing t Effect Sizes and Adjustments for Unequal Sample Sizes Interpreting the Independent Sample t Computing the Independent Sample t Reporting the Results t Tests for Nonindependent Samples Effect Size and Study Size Components of Nonindependent Sample t Assumptions Underlying t Tests Nonparametric Procedures The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and Permutation Tests 379 381 381 382 383 385 388 391 392 395 397 401 403 405 409 409 410 412 413 414 417 418 421 422 425 425 426 429 431 433 433 434 434 436 440 Chapter 14 Analysis of Variance and the F Test The F Test and the t Test The Analysis of "Variances" Illustration of an Omnibus F Dividing Up the Total Variance ANOVA Summary Tables Distributions of F After the Omnibus F Protecting Against "Too Many t Tests" Bonferroni Procedures Bonferroni Tolerance Value Comparing Two Independent Variabilities Illustration Using Transformations Comparing Two Correlated Variabilities Comparing Three or More Independent Variabilities Comparing Three or More Correlated Variabilities Summary of Procedures for Comparing Variabilities Chapter 15 One-Way Contrast Analyses Focusing Our Questions and Statistical Tests Contrast F Tests on Original Data Contrast t Tests on Original Data Carving Contrasts Out of Published Data Orthogonal Contrasts Nonorthogonal Contrasts Effect Size Indices for Contrasts The BESD and the Binomial Effect-Size Correlation Overview of the Four Effect-Size Indices Comparing Competing Contrasts Combining Competing Contrasts Optimal Design and the Allocation of Sample Sizes 440 442 444 445 448 451 453 455 456 PART VI FACTORIAL DESIGNS Chapter 16 Factorial Analysis of Variance Confronting Persistent Misunderstandings An Economy of Design Effects and the Structure of ANOVA Individual Differences as Error The Table of Variance Testing the Grand Mean by t and F Unweighted Means Analysis for Equal or Unequal Sample Sizes Effects on F of Unequal Sample Sizes Unequal Sample Sizes and Contrasts Transcending Factorial Structure Using Contrasts Higher Order Factorial Designs Blocking and the Increase of Power Blocking and the Analysis of Covariance Transforming Data to Remove Interactions 459 461 461 464 465 468 470 472 475 478 480 482 484 489 493 495 Chapter 17 Interaction Effects in Analysis of Variance The Interpretation of Interaction Crossed and Uncrossed Combinations of Group Means Illustration of Mean Polishing Constructing Tables of Predicted Means Studying Interactions in Two-Way Tables Three-Way Factorial Designs Defining Three-Way Interactions Further Notes on Interpretation Simplifying Complex Tables of Residuals Illustration of a Five-Way Interaction A Note on Complexity 499 499 501 504 506 510 513 515 517 522 524 526 Chapter 18 Repeated Measures in Analysis of Variance Use of Repeated Observations Basic Computations Fixed and Random Effects 527 527 528 530 Error Terms in the Four Basic Combinations Latin Squares and Counterbalancing Analysis of Latin Squares Some Latin Squares May Be Better Than Others Other Counterbalancing Designs Three or More Factors Two Within-Subjects Factors Aggregating Error Terms Three Within-Subjects Factors Fixed or Random Factors Did Repeated Measures Help? The Intraclass r Revisited Composite Variables and Additional Assumptions Contrasts in Repeated Measures Hierarchically Nested Designs The Choice of Error Terms 531 534 536 540 541 544 554 561 562 564 566 567 569 570 574 576 PART VII ADDITIONAL TOPICS IN DATA ANALYSIS Chapter 19 Significance Testing and Association in Tables of Counts Table Analysis and Chi-Square The 1-df Chi-Square Test Larger Tables of Counts Distributions of Chi-Square Procedures for Larger Contingency Tables Subdividing Tables to Test Specific Hypotheses Fisher Exact Probability Test Strengthening the Fisher Exact Test Adjustments for X2(l) in 2 X 2 Tables Complete Partitioning of Larger Tables The Corner-Cells Test Subtable Contrasts in Proportions Alternative Analyses for Smaller Sample Studies Standardizing Row and Column Totals Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Risk Difference, and Phi One-Sample Tables of Counts Multiple-Choice-Type Data and the Proportion Index 583 585 585 587 588 592 593 598 602 606 607 609 614 615 617 621 627 633 634 Chapter 20 Multivariate Data Analysis Background Redescribing Relationships Within Sets of Variables Cluster Analysis for Redescription Principal Components Analysis for Redescription 638 638 639 639 641 Improving Interpretation by Rotation Psychometric Applications of Principal Components Analysis Alternatives for the Redescription of Variables Multidimensional Scaling Illustration Relationships Among Sets of Variables 642 644 648 651 655 Chapter 21 Meta-Analysis: Comparing and Combining Research Results Statistical Analysis of Statistical Analyses Criticisms of Meta-Analysis Interpreting Two or More Studies Comparing Two Significance Levels Comparing Two Effect-Size Correlations Combining Two Significance Levels Combining Two Effect-Size Correlations Overall Comparisons of Three or More Studies Focused Comparisons of Three or More Studies Combining Three or More p Levels Combining Three or More Effect-Size Correlations Results That Are Not Independent The File Drawer Problem An Eye to Variability 663 663 665 668 670 671 673 675 677 678 680 682 683 686 689 691 693 708 737 765 815 827 PART VIII APPENDIXES A List of Numbered Equations B Statistical Tables Glossary References Subject Index Name Index

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