Normal view MARC view

The Conflict over environmental regulation in the United States: origins, outcomes, and comparisons with the EU and other regions

Author: Manheim, Frank T. Publisher: Springer, 2009.Language: EnglishDescription: 319 p. : Graphs/Ill./Maps/Photos ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9780387758763Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
Tags: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags.
Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print K850.33 .U7 M36 2009
(Browse shelf)
001245455
Available 001245455
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

The Conflict Over Environmental Regulation in the United States Origins, Outcomes, and Comparisons With the EU and Other Regions Contents Prologue............................................................................................................... vii Acknowledgments................................................................................................. xi Part I The Story 1 Our Current Conflict 1.1 Politics in America...................................................................................... 3 1.2 Environmentalists Versus Industry: A Collision Between Two Post-World War II Movements ................................................................ 6 1.3 Battles over Offshore Oil and ANWR........................................................ 9 1.4 Isolation of Information Systems Among Environmental Activists, Academic Analysts, and Producers ....................................................... 11 1.4.1 Environmentalist Communication ................................................ 11 1.4.2 Industry Communication .............................................................. 12 1.4.3 Industry Lobbying ......................................................................... 13 1.4.4 Academic Publication ­ The Separation of Theory from Practice .............................................................................. 14 1.4.5 Popular Media, Blogs, and Government Publications................... 14 1.4.6 The Isolation of Information Systems Is Revealed in the US Global Climate Change Debate .................................. 15 1.4.7 Militancy of US Environmental Organizations............................. 16 2 Tracing the Roots of the Conflict 2.1 Engineers and Pre-World War II America ............................................... 21 2.2 1950s-1960s: Environmental and Other Stresses Begin to Erode the Boom.................................................................................. 23 2.3 A New Academic Paradigm...................................................................... 24 2.3.1 The Vision and the Reality............................................................ 26 2.3.2 Diversion of US Scientific and Technical Talent? ....................... 30 2.4 The Modern Offshore Oil Industry............................................................ 31 2.4.1 Regulatory Developments ............................................................. 33 2.5 The Turbulent 1960s: Increasing Pollution, Environmental Problems, the Counterculture, and a Preoccupied Administration 34 2.5.1 Rachel Carson's Silent Spring and Rise of a New Environmental Movement 36 2.6 Remedial Action Falters 38 2.6.1 The Stratton Commission Report and President Richard Nixon 39 2.6.2 Contending Philosophies for Environmental Management................................................................................. 40 2.7 The Collision: the Santa Barbara Oil Spill of 1969................................... 42 2.8 The 1970s and 1980s.................................................................................. 44 2.8.1 The Environmental Revolution...................................................... 44 2.8.2 The Nixon­Ford Years: 1969-1977................................................ 46 2.8.3 The Carter­Andrus Years: 1977-1981 .......................................... 46 2.8.4 Reagan Administration: 1981-1989............................................... 47 2.9 Back to the Present..................................................................................... 52 3 Why History Is Important for Environmental Decision Making Today and Tomorrow 3.1 Communications and the Importance of Mediators................................... 3.1.1 George Washington as a Mediator................................................. 3.1.2 Abraham Lincoln as a Mediator..................................................... 3.1.3 Theodore Roosevelt as a Mediator................................................. 3.2 Bad Governance Produces Bad Consequences for Society ...................... 3.3 Environmental and Public Health Management........................................ 3.3.1 Pre-revolutionary War Period to the 1830s ................................... 3.3.2 The Laissez-Faire Era .................................................................... 3.4 People and Milestones in American Environmental History..................... 3.4.1 The Rise of Civil Engineers and Civil Engineering Management in America.............................................................. 3.4.2 The Role of Federal Science Agencies Prior to 1969 ................... 3.4.3 Science Agencies Before World War II: Professional, Apolitical, but Buffeted by Politics ............................................ 56 56 57 58 58 60 60 61 62 67 72 75 4 The Environmental Revolution of the 1970s and Its Outcomes 4.1 Problems Prior to the 1970s....................................................................... 79 4.1.1 The New Environmental Management System.............................. 80 4.2 Results of the New System........................................................................ 86 4.2.1 Positive Outcomes ......................................................................... 86 4.2.2 Negative Outcomes and Criticisms ............................................... 87 4.3 Underexamined Problems............................................................................ 88 4.3.1 Is Congress an Appropriate Environmental Manager?.................. 89 4.3.2 Litigation and Litigiousness........................................................... 93 4.3.3 Economic Effects............................................................................ 96 4.3.4 US Industrial and Manufacturing Losses...................................... 97 4.3.5 The US Environmental Management System: Additional Implications and Comparisons ................................................. 101 4.3.6 Benefit/Cost Analysis.................................................................. 103 4.3.7 "Sink or Swim" or "We're All in This Together"........................ 104 4.4 Infrastructure........................................................................................... 106 5 Why do Conflict and Polarization Matter? 5.1 Changing Energy Policies....................................................................... 111 5.2 Good Politics Versus "Inspirational" Politics ........................................ 114 5.2.1 Developments in the EU.............................................................. 114 5.2.2 US Assets .................................................................................... 114 5.2.3 US Problems ............................................................................... 115 5.2.4 Examples of Perspectives of Social Scientists ........................... 120 5.3 Exploring Methods to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Their Effects................................................................................... 120 5.3.1 Energy Conservation and Efficiency ­ Costs and Complexities .................................................................... 122 5.3.2 Hydropower................................................................................. 124 5.3.3 Wind Power................................................................................. 125 5.3.4 Ocean Energy ­ A Modest but Important Symbolic Regulatory Breakthrough.......................................................... 130 5.3.5 Biofuels and Biomass ................................................................. 133 5.3.6 Other Renewable Energies and Carbon Capture and Storage.............................................................................. 134 5.4 Discussion................................................................................................ 135 5.4.1 Offshore Oil and Gas................................................................... 135 5.5 Summary.................................................................................................. 136 6 Foreign Experience 6.1 The European Union and Other Nations Take the Lead......................... 139 6.1.1 Lawmaking in EU Nations and in the EU .................................. 143 6.2 Environmental Policies ........................................................................... 145 6.2.1 Germany and Austria................................................................... 146 6.2.2 Japan............................................................................................ 148 6.2.3 Canada......................................................................................... 148 6.3 Scandinavian Nations: Emergence of Post-environmental Societies ............................................................................................... 149 6.3.1 Mining and Environmental Protection ........................................ 152 6.3.2 Where are the Regulations?......................................................... 153 6.3.3 Norway's Offshore Petroleum Industry: A Model for Advanced Technology and Environmental Policy.............. 155 6.4 Discussion................................................................................................ 157 6.4.1 The Small, Homogeneous Society Explanation ......................... 159 6.5 Alternative Energy in Europe................................................................... 159 6.5.1 Wave and Tide Energy................................................................. 159 6.5.2 Biofuels......................................................................................... 161 7 Reform Efforts and the Future: Where Do We Go from Here? 7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 165 7.2 Selected Critiques and Problems with the old Regulatory System ......... 169 7.3 Reform Efforts -- History ....................................................................... 170 7.3.1 Minor Reforms ............................................................................. 170 7.3.2 Bubble Policy................................................................................ 170 7.3.3 Reagan Counterrevolution ........................................................... 171 7.3.4 G.H.W. Bush and the Clean Air Act Amendments...................... 172 7.3.5 Clinton--Gore Reinventing Government Program ..................... 172 7.3.6 The Republican Contract with America (1994) ........................... 174 7.3.7 Endangered Species Act and NEPA Reform ............................... 174 7.4 Proposals for Reform................................................................................ 174 7.4.1 Reflexive Law............................................................................... 175 7.4.2 Disclosure..................................................................................... 176 7.4.3 Sociopolitical Governance............................................................ 176 7.4.4 Innovation by States...................................................................... 176 7.4.5 Other Features of the "New Regulation" ..................................... 177 7.4.6 From "Command and Control" to "Command and Covenant"............................................................................ 177 7.5 Why Major Reforms of the 1970s Environmental Regulatory System Failed -- and Lawmakers Are Deterred from Attempting Reform................................................................................................... 177 7.6 Facing the Music...................................................................................... 179 7.7 Where Do We go from Here? .................................................................. 181 Part II Cases, Documentation, and Policy Analysis 8 Case Studies and Examples 8.1 The Rise of German Science: Lessons Forgotten in US Science Policy after World War II ..................................................................... 185 8.2 Whatever Happened to the Blue Revolution?.......................................... 187 8.2.1 Postwar US Aquaculture History: Fish and Politics Don't Mix.................................................................................... 189 8.2.2 Effect of US Policies on Innovative Approaches to Waste Management and Inhibition of Creative Enterprise........ 190 8.3 US Geological Survey.............................................................................. 191 8.3.1 Early History ................................................................................ 192 8.3.2 From 1907 to 1971 ....................................................................... 195 8.3.3 Vincent E. McKelvey (1971-1978).............................................. 196 8.3.4 H. William Menard (1978-1981) ................................................. 199 8.3.5 Dallas L. Peck (1981-1993).......................................................... 199 8.3.6 The Reckoning Approaches......................................................... 200 8.3.7 Gordon P. Eaton (1994-1997) ­ Traumatic Years ...................... 201 8.3.8 From Eaton to the Present............................................................ 202 8.3.9 Interpretation and Discussion ..................................................... 203 8.3.10 Conclusions ............................................................................... 204 8.4 Environmental Laws and Cases .............................................................. 206 8.4.1 California's Environmental Policy Act of 1970: Consequences Around San Francisco Bay (summarized from Frieden, 1979)................................................................... 206 8.4.2 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1948, 2006; and Milwaukee Sewerage Case)...................................................... 208 8.4.3 CERCLA (Superfund Act)........................................................... 212 8.4.4 Case Example of the Endangered Species Act (ESA): The San Francisco Bay Delta Smelt Petition............................ 214 8.4.5 Marine Fisheries Act (MFA) of 1976.......................................... 217 8.5 Corporate Scandals.................................................................................. 220 8.6 Campaigns of Environmental Activist Organizations............................. 221 8.7 Virginia Offshore Oil and Gas Issue ...................................................... 222 8.8 Guerrilla Warfare .................................................................................... 224 8.8.1 At the Extreme End...................................................................... 224 8.9 Green jobs, United States and Sweden.................................................... 227 8.10 Alternative Energy Sources and Emission Reduction Technologies; Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) ............................. 229 8.10.1 Federal Solar Energy Programs and Management in the Past 25 Years: Erratic Policies Yielded a Poor Record ........................................................................ 229 8.10.2 "Cleantech" Power Projects....................................................... 231 8.10.3 Geothermal Energy ................................................................... 233 8.10.4 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): A Critical Technology............................................................ 234 8.11 Positive Developments in the Environmental Community .................. 236 8.11.1 Environmentalists' Movement Toward Realism in Energy Policies .................................................................. 238 9 Policy Analysis 9.1 Post-World War II influences on US Academic Research and Policy Studies................................................................................. 9.1.1 Effect of the New Science Paradigm........................................... 9.1.2 Robert Maxwell and the New Model for Science Publication ................................................................................ 9.1.3 Social and Natural Sciences......................................................... 9.2 Shifts in Attitudes of Scientific, Industrial, and Governmental Leadership During and Since World War II......................................... 9.2.1 Pearl Harbor and Achievement of Unity During World War II............................................................................. 241 241 242 243 246 246 9.2.2 Postwar Developments and Talent-Leadership Shifts................. 248 9.2.3 Fast Forward to the 1960s ­ Alienation and Narrowing of Attitudes................................................................................ 248 9.3 Mediator­Leaders: A Critical Need for Future Progress........................ 251 9.4 US and EU Lawmaking........................................................................... 252 9.4.1 Lawmaking in Advanced EU Nations (see more detail in Chapter 6).............................................................................. 254 9.4.2 U.S. Lawmaking........................................................................... 255 9.4.3 Discussion.................................................................................... 255 9.5 Approach to the Present Research and Book.......................................... 256 9.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................. 258 References.......................................................................................................... 261 Notes.................................................................................................................... 281 Index................................................................................................................... 307

There are no comments for this item.

Log in to your account to post a comment.
Koha 18.11 - INSEAD Catalogue
Home | Contact Us | What's Koha?