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Temperament as a regulator of behavior: after fifty years of research

Author: Strelau, Jan Publisher: Eliot Werner Publications, 2008.Language: EnglishDescription: 271 p. : Graphs/Ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9780975273890Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Europe Campus
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Print BF798 .S66 2008
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001243123
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Temperament as a Regulator of Behavior After Fifty Years of Research Contents Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 1 Experiments on the diagnosis of the basic properties of the nervous system as Pavlov understood them: The forerunners of the Regulative Theory of Temperament.......................................................... 9 1.1. Pavlov's typology as the starting point for my own studies of temperament .................................................................................... 9 1.2. Receptor-determined specificity of the diagnosis of mobility of the nervous processes .......................................................................... 1.3. Specificity of the diagnosis of strength of excitation and mobility of the nervous processes as determined by the modality of the unconditioned stimuli adopted in the conditioning process ................ 1.4. Specificity of the diagnosis of strength of excitation as determined by the kind of reaction measured ..................................... 1.5. Studies of partiality of nervous system properties diagnosed in the laboratory: Summary and conclusions .......................................... 11 14 15 20 Chapter 2 Diagnosis of the basic properties of the nervous system by means of questionnaires ......................................................................................... 25 2.1. Observation as a method for diagnosing the basic properties of the nervous system .......................................................................... 26 2.2. The first attempt to construct a questionnaire to measure Pavlovian temperament ....................................................................... 27 2.3. The Temperament Questionnaire that was used in psychological research and practice for about twenty years ...................................... 28 2.4. The Strelau Temperament Inventory in research outside Poland ......... 30 2.5. The Pavlovian temperament constructs and selected personality traits .................................................................................. 32 2.6. The PTS Temperament Questionnaire: The final step in the construction of a psychometric instrument for the assessment of the basic Pavlovian CNS properties ................................................ 37 Chapter 3 An outline of the Regulative Theory of Temperament and the first stage of research on the functional role of temperament....................... 45 3.1. Origins of the Regulative Theory of Temperament ........................... 45 3.2. Development of the Regulative Theory of Temperament: Phase one ........................................................................................... 48 3.2.1. Reactivity as a primary temperament trait .............................. 50 3.2.2. Activity as a temperament trait ............................................... 52 3.2.3. The temporal characteristics of behavior ................................ 53 3.3. The functional significance of the temperament traits postulated by the RTT ........................................................................................ 55 3.3.1. Reactivity and style of action .................................................. 55 3.3.2. Performance of activities of a particular stimulating value, or preference thereof, and level of reactivity .............................. 59 3.3.3. Reactivity as related to effectiveness and its psychophysiological costs in situations differing in stimulating value .................... 67 3.4. Concluding remarks ............................................................................ 70 Chapter 4 The Regulative Theory of Temperament: A theoretical framework for temperament research at the turn of the twenty-first century . . . . 73 4.1. Basic propositions of the Regulative Theory of Temperament .......... 73 4.2. Temperament manifests itself in the formal characteristics of behavior that can be described in energetic and temporal terms (Propositions 1 and 2) ....................................................................... 74 4.3. There are relatively stable individual differences in the formal characteristics of behavior and these differences have the status of traits (Proposition 3) ..................................................................... 77 4.4. Individual differences in temperament are universal, present from the onset of neonatal life, and found in both humans and animals (Propositions 4-6) ................................................................ 79 4.5. Temperament, which is the result of biological evolution, undergoes gradual changes (Propositions 7 and 8) ........................... 81 4.6. Temperament has a regulative function that shows up mainly in difficult situations or extreme behaviors (Propositions 9 and 10) .... 85 4.7. The definition of temperament as proposed by the RTT .................... 88 Chapter 5 The structure of temperament and a psychometric instrument with which to measure it ........................................................................... 89 5.1. The procedure leading to identification of temperament structure according to the RTT.......................................................................... 91 5.1.1. Temperament traits that compose the energetic characteristics of behavior ............................................................................... 92 5.1.2. Temperament traits that compose the temporal characteristics of behavior ............................................................................... 93 5.1.3. The structure of temperament according to the RTT .............. 94 5.2. The Formal Characteristics of Behavior­Temperament Inventory ........................................................................................... 97 5.2.1. The FCB-TI: Construction and basic psychometric parameters . . . 97 5.2.2. Relationships between the FCB-TI scales and scales representing similar personality constructs ............................. 102 5.3. Cross-cultural studies of the assessment and structure of temperament using the FCB-TI .........................................................108 5.3.1. Construction of the etic-emic version of the FCB-TI ............. 110 5.3.2. Construction of the etic version of the FCB-TI ...................... 111 5.4. The Children's Temperament Questionnaire based on the Regulative Theory of Temperament ................................................. 115 Chapter 6 Temperament as a moderator of stressful phenomena ........................ 119 6.1. The stress concept underlying the research conducted within the RTT paradigm ..............................................................................120 6.2. Temperament as a moderator of situations that evoke the state of stress .............................................................................................. 123 6.3. Temperament as a moderator of the consequences of the state of stress .............................................................................................. 130 6.3.1. Temperament as a risk factor for somatic disease .................. 132 6.3.2. Temperament and staff burnout .............................................. 141 Chapter 7 Temperament and extreme stress............................................................. 151 7.1. Construction of the PTSD Inventory as a point of departure for the study of the relationships between temperament and the psychological consequences of disasters .......................................... 152 7.1.1. The factorial version of the PTSD questionnaire .................... 156 7.1.2. Studies of the psychometric goodness of the PTSD-F ............158 7.2. Temperament as a moderator of the relationship between experienced trauma and its psychological consequences ............... 162 7.2.1. The role of individual differences in the moderation of the trauma-psychological consequences relationship: A research review .................................................................. 163 7.2.2. Our own studies of the role of temperament as a moderator of PTSD symptoms ....................................................................165 Chapter 8 Research based on the behavior genetic paradigm conducted within the framework of the Regulative Theory of Temperament . . 187 8.1. Selected behavior genetic paradigms underlying current research ............................................................................... 188 8.2. Behavior genetic studies of temperament traits ................................ 193 8.2.1. Temperament studies conducted within the behavior genetic paradigm: An overview .........................................................194 8.2.2. RTT traits as measured by self-report and rating: Our own behavior genetic work ........................................................... 196 8.3. Genetic determinants of stress-related phenomena and their relationships with temperament ...................................................... 205 8.3.1. Stressors understood as life-changes and their relationships with temperament traits: A behavior genetic approach ........ 205 8.3.2. Genetic and environmental determinants of the consequences of trauma and their relationships with temperament traits: Family studies and studies based on the MZ and DZ twins reared-together method ......................................................... 210 8.3.3. Genetic and environmental determinants of coping styles and their relationships with temperament traits: Family studies and twin studies ............................................................................215 8.3.4. Research on the genetic foundations of temperament traits conducted within the molecular genetic paradigm ............... 220 Postscript ........................................................................................................225 References ...................................................................................................... 229 Index ............................................................................................................... 263

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