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Understanding human motivation: what makes people tick?

Author: Laming, Donald Publisher: Blackwell, 2004.Language: EnglishDescription: 311 p. : Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 26 cm.ISBN: 063121982XType of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print BF503 .L3 2004
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001241891
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Book Middle East Campus
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Understanding Human Motivation What Makes People Tick? Contents Preface and Acknowledgments xii INTRODUCTION: THREE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS What is "Motivation"? How Can We Study Human Motivation? The use of anecdotal material Three Fundamental Ideas Quasi-mechanical behavior Personal view and camera view Social extrusion Some omissions The Plan of this Book Questions for discussion 1 DETERMINISM AND FREE WILL Determinism Psychological theory treats behavior as determinate Free Will Questions for discussion 2 TERROR The Origins of Fear Components of Fear Two stages in the genesis of fear 1 2 3 3 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 20 21 23 25 27 Fear as Instinct Pathological fear The Experience of Fear Companionship Military combat Being in control Training and skill The Persistence of Fear The persistence of memory Recurrence of flear Questions for discussion 3 SEX Personal View and Camera View Which view -- personal view or camera view? Lay psychology Sexual Behavior is Quasi-Mechanical "Mechanical" "Substantially mechanical" Acquisition of patterns of sexual hehavior The pleasure principle Some Questions about Sexual Behavior 1 What are the extraneous signals which trigger sexual behavior? 2 What other signals or social constraints act to modify sexual, hehavior? 3 What about the intense feeling that accompany sexual activity? 4 What has this to do with the survival of the species? 5 What about the variation in sexual behavior from one adult to another? 6 Does sexual behavior have to match between mate and female? 7 How much of our sexual behavior is innate and how mach acquired? Questions for discussion 4 CONSCIOUSNESS Two Views of What People Do The Meaning of "Consciousness" Philosophical inquiry into consciousness The neural signature of consciousness Personal view and camera view 30 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 37 38 40 42 43 45 45 46 47 49 51 51 52 53 54 56 56 57 59 60 61 62 64 65 67 The Relationship of Subjective Experience to Objective Observation The split brain Why is consciouness important to the study of motivation? Questions for discussion 5 BOREDOM The Political Background "Brainwashing" Sensory Deprivation Hallucinations Disturbances of perception Cognitive deficits What does it all signify? Boredom Boredom at work Leisure activities Questions for discussion 6 SOCIAL CONVENTIONS Milgram's Experiments Proximity of teacher and pupil What is going on? Relaxation of the conflic The importance of social Structure Social Conventions Social conventions are different in different societies Social conventioni also differ between subgroups within the one society Understanding Milgram's Results Military obedience The Stanford County Prison Experiment Questions for discussion 7 THE RATE FOR THE JOB How Much Do Different People Earn? 1 People doing the same job get paid the same (irrespective of how well they do it), unless, sometimes, they happen to be women 2 Those people closet to the money are paid the most 3 If someone con earn more by negotiating a private deal, well, good luck to her or him 69 75 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 92 94 96 96 97 97 102 103 104 104 106 108 109 111 113 116 117 119 120 123 124 124 125 125 128 Boardroom pay MP's financial interests What has this chapter really been about? Questions for discussion 8 LONELINESS The Experience of Being Alone Applications of research into social isolation "Brainwashing" Feral Children Conclusions on Social Isolation Questions for discussion 9 THE MORAL SANCTION The Moral Sanction An experimental study of extrusion Whistleblowers Examples from the wider society Some Interim Conclusions on Extrusion 1 Extrusion is spontaneous 2 Moral constraints are subconscious 3 The sanction of extrusion is powerful 4 The underclass Questions for discussion 10 PEER PRESSURE Social Conformity Informational and Normative Influences Informational influence Normative influence Group cohesiveness What Happens if the Majority is Not Unanimous? Inversion of majority and minority 130 134 137 139 140 140 143 144 147 153 155 156 157 157 159 162 167 167 169 171 171 173 174 174 177 178 179 180 181 184 What may we conclude from the attempted rehabilitation of these three chidren? 151 How Large Does the Majority Have to Be? Individual differences between participants Interrogation by the police Summary Questions for discussion 185 186 188 192 194 11 THE CROWD The Problem The flashpoint "Group mind" The random evolution of crowd behavior 1 Social Attitudes, Standards, Conventions Evolve 2 Social Conventions Can Evolve Rapidly 3 The Evolution of Social Conventions is Essentially Random Rumor Public protest 4 The Likelihood of Disorder, of Riot, Depends on the Crowd's Reason for Being 5 The Likelihood of Disorder, of Riot, also Depends on the Social Setting Summary Questions for discussion 12 RAGE ... WhyAre People Aggressive? Frustrration Negative affect Retaliation Aggession as Instinct The "terrible twos" Instrumental and Emotional Aggression Experimental Methods The Bus aggression apparatus Retaliation Aggession in Everyday Life Domestic violence Road rage Social cognition Crowding Three principal factors Summary Questions for discussion 195 195 196 197 197 197 198 202 202 203 205 207 209 209 210 211 212 212 213 213 213 214 215 216 218 220 220 222 223 225 226 228 229 13 ... AND ARE WE PROVOKED TO VIOLENCE BY THE MEDIA? Video Nasties "Copycat" Murders Boxing The effect of watching a boxing match Neighbor Disputes Sympathetic motivation Suicides The Long-Term Effect of Television Violence Summary Questions for discussion 14 MONEY Two ways to become rich The Psychopathic Personality Machiavellianism The $10 game The con game Pawnbroking Eye contact Credibility when lying Pyramid selling Commissions for financial services Questions for discussion 15 GAMBLING The Prevalence of Gambling Rationality The estimation of probabilities Blackjack How gamblers play blackjack Roulette Betting systems Luck Personal view and camera view Sales Promotions Questions for discussion 230 230 231 234 235 236 237 238 239 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 252 253 253 256 257 261 262 262 264 265 268 269 270 271 272 274 276 277 16 HUMAN MOTIVATION: HOW DOES IT WORK? Three Fundamental Ideas Personal view and camera view, Quasi-mechanical behavior Social conventions How Does it Ail Work? Hormones 278 278 278 279 280 281 282 References Index 284 302

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