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Differentiation in European Union law

Author: Tuytschaever, Filip Publisher: Hart Publishing, 1999.Language: EnglishDescription: 298 p. ; 25 cm.ISBN: 1841130729Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print K200.6 .T89 1999
(Browse shelf)
001217615
Available 001217615
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

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Differentiation in European Union Law Contents Table of Cases Table of Legislation Abbreviations Introduction xvii xxi xxxiii 1 7 7 15 23 33 33 35 37 39 42 43 49 49 49 49 54 54 57 61 63 63 68 69 70 70 75 77 77 1. From Rome to Maastricht. A Historical Overview of Differentiation 1. The Treaty of Rome 2. The Single European Act 3. The Treaty on European Union 2. From Maastricht to Amsterdam. Differentiation and the 1996 IGC 1. Differentiation in the Run-up to the 1996 IGC 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. The The The The Commission European Parliament Reflection Group European Council held in Turin on 29 March 1996 2. The 1996 IGC Discussion on Differentiation 3. Differentiation and the Treaty of Amsterdam 1. EC 1.1. Closer Co-operation 1.1.1. General Enabling Clause 1.1.2. Authorisation of Closer Co-operation a. Additional Material Criteria b. Procedural criteria c. Judicial control 1.1.3. Implementation and Financing of Closer Co-operation a. Implementation b. Financing 1.1.4. Joining of the Non-participating Member States 1.2. Visas, Asylum, Immigration and Other Policies Related to Free Movement of Persons 1.2.1. Background 1.2.2. Position of the Member States in Title IIIa TEC 1.2.3. Position of the UK and Ireland a. Protocol on the Application of Certain Aspects of Article 7a TEC to the UK and to Ireland b. Protocol on the Position of the UK and Ireland 1.2.4. Position of Denmark 1.3. Other Elements of Differentiation 2. Title V TEU 3. Title VI TEU 3.1. Recasting of Title VI TEU 3.2. Closer Co-operation 3.2.1. Authorisation of Closer Co-operation a. Additional Substantive Criteria b. Procedural Criteria c. Judicial Control 3.2.2. Implementation and Financing of Closer Co-operation a. Implementation b. Financing 3.2.3. Joining of the Non-participating Member States 4. Differentiated Integration of the Schengen Acquis into the EU Framework 4.1. Integration of the Schengen Acquis 4.1.1. The Rule. Article 2 of the Schengen Protocol 4.1.2. The Exception (I). Article 3 of the Schengen Protocol (Denmark) 4.1.3. The Exception (II). Article 4 of the Schengen Protocol (UK and Ireland) 4.2. Further Development of the Schengen Acquis 4.2.1. The Rule. Article 5 of the Schengen Protocol 4.2.2. The Exception (I). Denmark 4.2.3. The Exception (II). UK and Ireland 4. Differentiation and the Principle of Non-Discrimination 1. What is Discrimination? 2. The Comparability Test 3. The Justification Test 4. Differentiation and Proportionality 5. Differentiation and Objective Justification 5. A Categorisation of Differentiation 1. Parameters 1.1. Actual and Potential Differentiation in Primary or Secondary Law 77 80 80 85 89 89 90 91 91 91 93 94 94 97 97 98 98 98 99 100 101 101 101 103 105 105 107 109 111 113 116 116 116 1.2. Inter-State and Intra-State Differentiation. Temporary and Non-temporary Differentiation 1.3. General and Specific Differentiation 1.4. Positive and Negative Differentiation 2. Categories Actual Differentiation 1. Primary Law 1.1. Primary Law 1.2. Specific 1.2.1. Intra-State differentiation 1.2.2. Inter-State differentiation a. Temporary differentiation b. Non-temporary differentiation 2. Secondary Law 2.1. General 2.2. Specific 2.2.1. Intra-State differentiation 2.2.2. Inter-State differentiation a. Temporary differentiation b. Non-temporary differentiation Potential Differentiation 3. Primary Law 3.1. General 3.1.1. Intra-State differentiation 3.1.2. Inter-State differentiation a. Temporary differentiation b. Non-temporary differentiation 3.2. Specific 3.2.1. Intra-State differentiation 3.2.2. Inter-State differentiation a. Temporary differentiation b. Non-temporary differentiation 4. Secondary Law 4.1. General 4.1.1. Intra-State differentiation 4.1.2. Inter-State differentiation a. Temporary differentiation b. Non-temporary differentiation 4.2. Specific 4.2.1. Intra-State differentiation 117 120 121 124 125 125 125 125 125 125 126 125 127 128 128 128 128 129 129 129 129 129 129 131 132 132 132 132 131 133 133 133 133 133 134 135 135 4.2.2. Inter-State differentiation a. Temporary differentiation b. Non-temporary differentiation 6. "Europe à la Carte--Legal Limits to a Multi-Speed Europe with Various Groupings" 1. Multi-speed 1.1. Origins 1.2. Models of Multi-speed Integration 1.2.1. Multi-speed Integration and Objective Differences (I). "Abgestufte Integration" a. Procedures b. Field of Application c. Assessment 1.2.2. Multi-speed Integration and Subjective Differences. "A Formula for Differentiated Integration" a. Procedures b. Field of Application c. Assessment 1.2.3. Multi-speed Integration and Objective Differences (II) . The Road to the Single Currency 1.3. Limits of Multi-speed Integration 1.3.1. Multi-speed Integration and Objective Differences 1.3.2. Multi-speed Integration and Subjective Differences 2. A la Carte 2.1. Origins 2.2. What is Integration à la Carte 2.3. From Integration à la Carte to Closer Co-operation 3. Case Study: Differentiation and the EC's External Relations 3.1. External Relations in Stage Three of EMU 3.1.1. The Rule. Article 109 TEC and the Declaration on Articles 109, 130r and 130y of the TEC 3.1.2. The Exceptions. Member States with a Derogation and with an Opt-Out a. Member States with a Derogation b. Member States with an Opt-out 3.2. EMU as a Paradigm for "Differentiated External Relations" 3.2.1. Negotiation and Conclusion of Agreements a. Community Agreements b. Mixed Agreements 3.2.2. Implementation of Agreements 135 135 135 136 138 138 142 142 143 143 145 146 147 147 147 148 150 151 154 157 157 161 163 170 170 170 173 174 176 177 177 178 178 180 3.2.3. Joining of Non-participating Member States 180 a. Community Agreements or Mixed Agreements Concluded by the Community and the Participating Member States 180 b. Agreements Concluded by the Non-participating Member States 181 4. Variable Geometry 183 4.1. Origins 4.2. EC RandTD Policy 4.2.1. Context of RandTD Collaboration 4.2.2. Muddling Through the First Experiences 2.3. From CREST to ESPRIT and the First RandTD Framework Programme. The Development of a Parallel EEC RandTD Policy 4.2.4. A "European Technology Community" or Eureka? 4.2.5. Towards a Europeanisation of the RandTD Policy a. The SEA b. The TEU and Beyond 4.3. What is Variable Geometry Integration? 4.4. Variable Geometry in Other Policies? 7. Differentiation in Context 1. Causes of Differentiation 2. Objectives of Differentiation 183 184 184 188 4. 193 199 202 202 206 210 212 218 218 221 2.1. Regulatory, Redistributive, Distributive and Constitutional Policies 221 2.2. Differentiation and Intergovernmental Co-operation outside the Treaty Framework 226 2.3. Differentiation and Two Europes 230 3. Consequences of Differentiation 236 3. 1. Differentiation, the "All-or-nothing Effect" of EU Membership and the Division of Competence between the EU and the Member States 237 3.2. Differentiation as a New Form of Subsidiarity 240 3. 3. Differentiation, the Member States as Masters of the Treaty, and the ECJ 243 3.4. Differentiation and the EU's Constitution 245 3.4.1. Two Competing Views on a Europe à la carte 247 3.4.2. Variable Geometry Europe 255 Annex I: Tables of Equivalences 261 Annex II: 1996 IGC Documents on Differentiation 267 Selected Bibliography Index 269 289

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