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How humans evolved

Author: Boyd, Robert ; Silk, Joan B.Publisher: Norton 2006.Edition: 4th ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 487 p. : Graphs/Ill./Maps/Photos ; 28 cm. includes CD-ROM / DVDISBN: 9780393926286Type of document: BookNote: CD available inside back cover - Student edition CD-Rom Bibliography/Index:
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print GN20 .B69 2006
(Browse shelf)
001240870
Available 001240870
Total holds: 0

CD available inside back cover - Student edition CD-Rom

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How Humans Evolved Contents Preface Prologue: Why Study Human Evolution? XV XX PART ONE: HOW EVOLUTION WORKS CHAPTER 1: Adaptation by Natural Selection Explaining Adaptation before Darwin Darwin's Theory of Adaptation Darwin's Postulates An Example of Adaptation by Natural Selection Individual Selection The Evolution of Complex Adaptations Why Small Variations Are Important Why Intermediate Steps Are Favored by Selection Rates of Evolutionary Change Darwin's Difficulties Explaining Variation CHAPTER 2: Genetics Mendelian Genetics Cell Division and the Role of Chromosomes in Inheritance Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosomes and Mendel's Experimental Results Linkage and Recombination 2 2 4 5 6 11 12 12 14 17 21 24 24 26 27 28 32 34 37 38 40 46 48 BOX 2.1 More On Recombination Molecular Genetics Genes Are DNA Structural Genes Code for Proteins Regulatory Sequences Control Gene Expression Not All DNA Codes for Proteins CHAPTER 3: The Modern Synthesis Population Genetics Genes in Populations 51 51 52 Box 3.1 Genotypic Frequencies after Two Generations of Random Mating How Random Mating and Sexual Reproduction Change Genotypic Frequencies How Natural Selection Changes Gene Frequencies The Modern Synthesis The Genetics of Continuous Variation How Variation Is Maintained Natural Selection and Behavior Constraints on Adaptation Correlated Characters Disequilibrium Genetic Drift Local versus Optimal Adaptations Other Constraints on Evolution 53 57 58 58 62 66 69 70 72 73 77 78 57 Box 3.2 The Geometry of Area/Volume Ratios CHAPTER 4: 79 Speciation and Phylogeny 83 83 85 86 88 89 91 94 97 99 100 101 102 What Are Species? The Biological Species Concept The Ecological Species Concept The Origin of Species Allopatric Speciation Parapatric and Sympatric Speciation The Tree of Life Why Reconstruct Phylogenies? How to Reconstruct Phylogenies Box 4.1 The Role of Phylogeny in the Comparative Method Problems Due to Convergence Problems Due to Ancestral Characters Using Genetic-Distance Data to Date Phylogenetic Events Taxonomy: Naming Names 105 107 PART TWO: PRIAATE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR CHAPTER 5: Introduction to the Primates Two Reasons to Study Primates Primates Are Our Closest Relatives Primates Are a Diverse Order Features That Define the Primates 114 114 115 115 116 120 121 122 122 124 131 Box 5.1 What's in a Tooth? Primate Biogeography A Taxonomy of Living Primates The Prosimians The Anthropoids Primate Conservation CHAPTER 6: Primate Ecology 136 137 142 145 147 149 152 133 156 158 161 164 165 166 169 The Distribution of Food Box 6.I Dietary Adaptations of Primates Activity Patterns Ranging Behavior Predation Primate Sociality Box 6.2 Forms of Social Groups among Primates The Distribution of Females Box 6.3 Dominance Hierarchies The Distribution of Males CHAPTER 7: Primate Mating Systems The Language of Adaptive Explanations The Evolution of Reproductive Strategies Reproductive Strategies of Females Sources of Variation in Female Reproductive Performance Reproductive Trade-offs Sexual Selection and Male Mating Strategies Intrasexual Selection Intersexual Selection Male Reproductive Tactics Investing Males Male­Male Competition in Nonmonogamous Groups Infanticide Paternal Care in Nonmonogamous Groups Female Mate Choice CHAPTER 8: The Evolution of Social Behavior Kinds of Social Interactions Altruism: A Conundrum Kin Selection 170 174 177 179 181 182 183 184 187 192 193 196 197 198 200 201 202 205 209 213 Box 8.I Group Selection Hamilton's Rule Evidence of Kin Selection in Primates Box 8.2 How Relationships Are Maintained Reciprocal Altruism CHAPTER 9: Primate Life Histories and the Evolution of Intelligence Big Brains and Long Lives Life History Theory The Evolution of Primate Life Histories Selective Pressures Favoring Large Brains What Do Monkeys Know? Ecological Knowledge Social Knowledge The Value of Studying Primate Behavior 218 218 219 222 223 229 229 230 238 PART THREE: THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN LINEAGE CHAPTER 10: From Tree Shrew to Ape Continental Drift and Climate Change The Methods of Paleontology Box 242 245 247 248 251 255 258 262 264 269 271 271 272 272 273 275 275 276 282 284 285 288 291 292 293 295 295 297 300 10.1Using Deep-Sea Cores to Reconstruct Ancient Climates The Evolution of the Early Primates The First Anthropoids Box 1 0.2 Facts that Teeth Can Reveal Box 1 0. 3 Missing Links The Emergence of the Hominoids CHAPTER. 11: From Hominoid to Hominin At the Beginning Ardipithecus Orrorin tugenensis Sahelanthropus tchadensis The Hominin Community Diversifies Australopithecus A. anamensis A. afarensis A. africanus A. garhi A. habilis/rudolfensis Paranthropus Box 11.1 Chemical Clues about the Diet of Paranthropines Kenyanthropus Hominin Phylogenies The Evolution of Early Hominin Morphology and Behavior The Evolution of Bipedalism Early Hominin Subsistence Early Hominin Social Organization CHAPTER 12: Oldowan Toolmakers and the Origin of Human Life History The Oldowan Toolmakers 304 304 306 308 312 314 316 320 323 Box 1 2.1 Ancient Toolmaking and Tool Use Complex Foraging Shapes Human Life History Box 12.2 What Meat Eating Favors Food Sharing Evidence for Complex Foraging by Oldowan Toolmakers Archaeological Evidence for Meat Eating Hunters or Scavengers? Domestic Lives of Oldowan Toolmakers Back to the Future: The Transition to Modern Human Life Histories 323 CHAPTER 13: From Hominin to Homo Hominins of the Lower Pleistocene: Homo ergaster Morphology Tools and Subsistence Hominins of the Early Middle Pleistocene (900 to 300 kya) Eastern Asia: Homo erectus Africa and Western Eurasia: Homo heidelbergensis Hominins of the Later Pleistocene (300 to 50 kya) Eastern Eurasia: Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis Western Eurasia: The Neanderthals Africa: The Road to Homo sapiens? The Sources of Change The Muddle in the Middle CHAPTER 14: Homo sapiens and the Evolution of Modern 327 328 330 333 337 340 343 345 346 348 356 357 358 Human Behavior Modern Homo sapiens 362 363 365 367 369 376 Box 14.1 The Evolution of the Human Genome Archaeological Evidence for Modern Human Behavior Upper Paleolithic Technology and Culture The Origin and Spread of Modern Humans Genetic Data 377 382 388 390 391 395 397 Box 14.2 Mitochondrial Eve Evidence from Fossils and Tool Kits Modern Human Behavior: Revolution or Evolution? The African Archaeological Record during the Later Pleistocene How Modern Human Behavior Evolved Box 14.3 Arcy-sur-Cure and the Causes of Modern Human Behavior PART FOUR: EVOLUTION AND MODERN HUMANS CHAPTER 15: Human Genetic Diversity Explaining Human Variation Variation in Traits Influenced by Single Genes Causes of Genetic Variation within Groups 402 402 406 408 Box 15. 1 Calculating Gene Frequencies for a Balanced Polymorphism Causes of Genetic Variation among Groups Variation in Complex Phenotypic Traits Genetic Variation within Groups Genetic Variation among Groups The Race Concept CHAPTER 16: Evolution and Human Behavior Why Evolution Is Relevant to Human Behavior Understanding How We Think Inbreeding Avoidance 410 411 417 419 420 423 431 431 434 436 437 440 445 445 451 Box 16. I Why Inbred Matings Are Bad News Human Language Evolution and Human Culture Culture Is a Derived Trait in Humans Culture Is an Adaptation Box 1 6.2 Understanding the Sources of Behavioral Variation CHAPTER 17: Human Mate Choice and Parenting The Psychology of Human Mate Preferences Some Social Consequences of Mate Preferences Kipsigis Bridewealth Nyinba Polyandry Raising Children Parenting Effort and Mating Effort Grandparental Care Discriminative Parental Solicitude Prenatal Investment Infanticide Adoption Adoption in Oceania Adoption in Industrialized Societies Is Human Evolution Over? 449 457 458 468 468 470 473 473 476 477 477 479 481 481 482 484 Epilogue: There Is Grandeur in This View of Life ... Appendix: The Skeletal Anatomy of Primates Glossary Credits Index 487 Al A3 A17 A23

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