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This Business of television

Author: Blumenthal, Howard J. Publisher: Billboard, 2006.Language: EnglishDescription: 568 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0823077632Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes index
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TABLE O CONTENTS F This Business of Television T h i s B u s i n e s s of T e l e v i s i o n ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .XVIII INTRODUCTION: DEFINING TELEVISION ......................................xx Early Technology and Regulation ........................................... XX The Evolution of Network Programming ......................................XXI Reinventing the Television Industry ......................................... XXII Television in the New Millennium .........................................XXlll PART 1: DISTRIBUTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. Chapter 1: Broadcast Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. Network Structure and Programming .........................................2 Costs. Revenues. and Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . Broadcast Stations...................................................... 4 Chapter 2: Cable Television............................................... 12 Cable Networks....................................................... 12 Cable System Operators ................................................. 15 . Regional Cable Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Pay Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Set-Top Boxes and VOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . Chapter 3: Satellite Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19. . Technology and Operations ............................................... 19 Business Model ....................................................... 20 Chapter 4: Home Video and New Forms of Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 DVD............................................................... 22 Videoon-Demand (VOD) ................................................ 23 Digital Video Recording, Editing. and Playback.................................. 24 Digital Broadcasting (DTV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 PART 2: REGULATION OF DISTRIBUTION ..................................... 27 Chapter 5: FCC BASICS .................................................. 28 .. ..................................................... Ongm of the FCC 28 Organization of the FCC ................................................. 29 Functioning of the FCC .................................................. 30 . FCC Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Chapter 6: The FCC and Broadcast Regulation ................................34 . Local Regulation: Traditional Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Restrictions on Licensdiolding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 -. Local Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . National Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 . Equal Employment Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Regulation of High-Definition Television (HDN) and Digiiol Television (DTV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Regulation of LowPower Television (LPTV) .................................... 40 Regulation of Multipoint Delivery Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 license Renewals ..................................................... 41 Public Inspection File ................................................... 42 license Transfers ......................................................42 Station operations .................................................... - 4 3 Political Broadcasting ...................................................44 Children's Broadcasting..................................................44 Network Issues .......................................................45 Chapter 7: Cable Regulation .............................................. 47 Federal Cable Regulation ................................................ 47 Copyright Aspects of Cable Television .......................................5 3 ........................................... 53 State and Local Cable Regulation Chapter 8: Regulation of Satellite Broadcarling and Hew Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Regulation of Satellite Television ........................................... 58 . Regulation of Multipoint Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Regulation of Video.on.Demond ............................................63 Impact of the 1996 Telecommunications Act ................................... 64 Video via the Internet .................................................. 65 PART 3: AUDIENCE MEASUREMENT AND ADVERTISING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 . Chapter 9: Audience Measurement and Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 . Audience Shore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 . Audience Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Chapter 10: Network Television Advertising.................................. 73 The Upfront Market .................................................... 73 Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Chapter 1 1: Local Television Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Managing Inventory....................................................78 Soles Managers and Rep Firms ............................................ 7 9 Commercial Rates .....................................................80 From the Advertiser's Perspective........................................... 80 . Direct-Response Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Chapter 12: New Approaches to Television Advertising ......................... 83 Nielsen's A/P Metering System ............................................ 83 Product Placements .................................................... 84 . Chapter 13: Advertising Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 . Business Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Agency Organization ...................................................88 Media-Buying Decisions .................................................89 Producing Television Commercials .......................................... 90 Chapter 14: Regulation of Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-.9 3 . The FTC and Control of Advertising. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 "Deceptive": The Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 The FCC and Advertising Content ........................................... 97 Limits on Advertising Time ............................................... 98 Unfair Competition and the lonham Act ...................................... 99 State Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Consumer Claims..................................................... 100 Industry Review of Advertising Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 PART 4: THE PROGRAMMING BUSINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Chapter 15: Programming to Market Segments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Age Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Other Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 General Audiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Reaching Smaller Audiences ............................................. 111 Doypart Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Chapter 16: The Economics of Programming and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Return on Investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Anticipated Revenues and Production Budgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 The Real Costs of Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 . The Inevitable Negotiations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Profit lmplicotions ....................................................115 Chapter 17: Program Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 The Domestic Broadcast Market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Programs Distributed to Domestic Cable Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 . Programs Distributed to Foreign Markets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Originol Programming for Domestic Syndication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 .. Syndication Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 . PART 5: BIG MEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . Chapter 18: The Rise of Big Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 126 Advertising, Corporate Interests. and Big Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Media's Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Ownership and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 .. Rules Governing Big Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Chapter 19: The Largest Media Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 NBC Universal ....................................................... 129 Disney ABC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 . Viacom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Time Warner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 FOX (News Corporation) ............................................... 140 liberty Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Chapter 20: The Next Level Down ........................................144 Comcast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 145 Discovery Communications (DCI) .......................................... E. W. Scripps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 .. The Hearst Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 148 Belo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bertelsmonn Media Worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 150 Cablevision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cox Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Clear Channel Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 . Gannett ......................................................... 153 Landmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 The Tribune Company.................................................. 154 The Washington Post Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 . Paxson Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Chapter 21: Branding in the Television Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 History and Evolution of Television Brands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 . Brand Development ...................................................158 Brand Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 .. Chapter 22: Regulation of Global Media Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Financial Regulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 .. Communications Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Censorship .........................................................166 PART 6: A BROADER DEFINITION OF TELEVISION ............................. 169 Chapter 23: Public Television ............................................ 170 History of Public Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) ....................................171 Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) ......................................... 173 Public Television Programming............................................ 175 Public Television Stations ............................................... 180 Government Regulation ................................................181 . Chapter 24: Home Shopping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 184 Short-Form Dired Response: Per Inquiry ..................................... Program-Length Commercials: Infomercials ................................... 185 Shopping Networks ................................................... 187 . Home Shopping Outside the US. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Government Regulation ................................................ 191 Industry Regulation ...................................................191 Chapter 25: Religious Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 History and Evolution of Religious Television .................................. 192 . Television Ministries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Religious Television Networks ............................................194 Regulation of Religious Television.......................................... 196 Chapter 26: Home Video ................................................ 198 Mainstream Product ...................................................199 199 Operation of a Home Video label ......................................... Video Retail ........................................................200 Special-InterestVideo .................................................. 201 Video Clubs ........................................................ 202 Chapter 27: New Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Progress........................................................... 204 . The Potential Power of SmalFScale Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 High-DefinitionTelevision (HDTV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . PART 7: PROGRAMMING AND PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 . Chapter 28: Prime-Time Entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 Dramatic Series ......................................................210 Comedies .......................................................... 213 Reality Shows ....................................................... 215 Chapter 29: News Programming.......................................... 218 Broadcast Network News ............................................... 218 Cable News Networks ................................................. 220 Weather ...........................................................221 Business News ..................................................... - 2 2 2 . Local News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Local and Regional Cable News Networks .................................... 227 News Magazines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Documentaries ...................................................... 228 Content Considerations................................................. 229 Chapter 30: Sports Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-231 The Buyers ......................................................... 232 The Sellers ......................................................... 234 Production and Operations .............................................. 237 Niche Ploys......................................................... 238 Advertising ......................................................... 239 240 Sports Television Outside the U S.......................................... Chapter 31: Talk Shows. Variety. Music. and More............................241 Talk Shows.........................................................241 . Game Shows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 . Awards Shows and Variety Shows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 .. Special-interest Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Concerts and Performances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 . Chapter 32: Children's Progamming; Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 The Children's Television Marketplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 Development of on Animated Series........................................251 licensing and Children's Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254 . FCC Rules: Educational Content on Commercial Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 The Internotional Marketplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 .. Coproductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256 . PART 8: REGULATION OF PROGRAMMING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 Chapter 33: Free Speech and the First Amendment ........................... 260 History of Free Speech in the U.S ......................................... - 2 6 0 Rules Governing Content................................................ 261 Chapter 34: Intellectual Property: Copyright ................................262 Scope of Federal Low.................................................. 262 Rights and Protections Under Copyright Law ..................................262 Obtaining Copyright Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Term of Copyright ....................................................269 271 Copyright Infringement ................................................. International Copyright Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 . Protection of Ideas.................................................... 276 Unsolicited Material ...................................................277 Chapter 35: Protection of Personal Rights .................................. 279 Libel and Slander..................................................... 279 Privacy and Publicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 . Reality Progroms and Docudromos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 .. Moral Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 .. Unfair Competition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 .. Chapter 36: Protection of Society .........................................288 Obscenity .......................................................... 288 National Security and Politically Motivated Control .............................. 291 Pretriol Publicity ..................................................... 292 "Son of Sam" Laws................................................... 292 Children's Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 294 Self-Regulation by the Television Industry ....................................294 Public Pressure ...................................................... 297 Violence on Television PART 9: PRODUCTION ................................................... 299 Chapter 37: A Rapidly Changing Produdion Environment ......................300 More Producers. More Distribution ......................................... 300 Smaller Crews....................................................... 1 30 Production and Postproduction Equipment ................................... 301 Changes in Distribution................................................. 302 Chapter 38: Development and Production Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304 Concept Development .................................................304 Packaging ......................................................... 305 Production Planning and Budgeting ........................................ 306 Chapter 39: Production Financing and Deal-Making ..........................309 .. Internal Working Copital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309 Customers and Clients ................................................. 310 Suppliers .......................................................... 310 .. Investors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311 Bonks and Other Lenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Foreign Partners .....................................................313 Advertisers ........................................................-314 Syndication and Distribution: A Classic Model and a Time of Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 How Deals Get Done .................................................. 323 Chapter 40: Production Companies........................................ 328 InHouse Productions .................................................. 328 Production Cornpany/Client Relationship..................................... 329 . Types of Production Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330 . Chapter 41: Producers. Directors. and Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Producers .......................................................... 337 Directors...........................................................342 Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Chapter 42: Performers ................................................350 AFTRA Agreement Basics................................................ 350 SAG Agreement Basics ................................................. 353 Casting ........................................................... 354 Negotiating a Performance Agreement ...................................... 356 Non-union Employment ................................................ 357 Working with Performers ............................................... 357 Chapter 43: Representation and Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 . Agents ........................................................... 362 Attorneys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 .. Business Managers and Personal Managers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 Accountants ........................................................ 367 Chapter 44: Location and Studio Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Shooting on Location ..................................................369 Studio Production ....................................................371 Technical and Staging Unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 . Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376 . Music............................................................. 378 Chapter 45: Post.produdion. Completion. and Delivery ....................... 380 Post-production ...................................................... 380 Use of Existing Materials ...............................................381 Screen Credits ....................................................... 383 Deliverobles ........................................................ 384 Chapter 46: Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 .. Promos ........................................................... 385 Animation.......................................................... 386 Production Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387 . Intellectual Property Considerations ........................................ 391 Chapter 47: Music ..................................................... 394 Music and Copyright law ..............................................- 3 9 4 Music Publishing ..................................................... 395 Obtaining a Synchronization License........................................396 Performance licenses and Performing Rights Organizations ........................397 PART 10: LEGAL AND BUSINESS AFFAIRS ................................... 399 .. Chapter 48: Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 . Verbal and Written Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Contract Formots .....................................................401 Contract Validity ..................................................... 404 . Matters of Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407 . lawyers' Terms in Everyday Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Chapter 49: Work Relationships. Unions. Legal Entities. and Tax Issues . . . . . . . . . . .414 Employees and Independent Contractors ..................................... 414 Unions ............................................................ 415 Business Entities .....................................................418 Foreign Entities ......................................................424 Tax Issues for U.S. Residents and Companies .................................426 429 PART 11: TELEVISION OUTSIDE THE U S .................................... Chapter 50: Overview of International Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430 431 International Brands and New Technologies ................................... International Program Soles .............................................432 Overview of World Television Markets ...................................... 433 Television Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 Chapter 51: Canada ................................................... 436 Canadian Content and Canadian Production...................................437 Canadian Broadcast Networks ............................................439 French-Language Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 Canadian Media Companies .............................................443 Canadian Independent Production Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446 Canadian Talent in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447 Chapter 52: Europe ....................................................448 United Kingdom ..................................................... 448 ... Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 France ............................................................ 460 .. Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Spain............................................................4 6 7 Other European Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Chapter 53: Australia and Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474 Australia ........................................................... 474 Japan ........................................................... 480 India ............................................................. 483 Chino .............................................................484 Other Asian Countries.................................................. 486 Chapter 54: Latin America .............................................. 487 Mexico........................... . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487 Brazil............................................................. 490 . Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492 . . Cable and Satellite Channels .............................................493 APPENDICES ............................................................ 495 496 User's Guide to the Contract Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 1.1 Rights Acquisition (Issue Checklist) .............................. 497 Appendix 1.2 Submission Release Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Appendix 1.3 Personal Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Appendix 1.4 Short-Form Rights Option Agreement .............................503 Appendix 2.1 Development, Distribution, and Finance Agreements (Issue Checklist) . . . . . . 504 Appendix 2.2 Short-Form Development Deal ................................. 509 . Appendix 2.3 Television Distribution/Finonce Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512 Appendix 2.4 Short-Form Home Video License [without Internet Download] ............ 521 Appendix 2.5 Appendix 3.1 Appendix 3.2 Appendix 3.3 Appendix 3.4 Appendix 3.5 Appendix 4.1 Appendix 4.2 Appendix 4.3 Appendix 4.4 Appendix 4.5 Appendix 4.6 Appendix 4.7 Appendix 5.1 Appendix 5.2 Appendix 6.1 Appendix 6.2 . Soles Representative Letter Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .524 Talent and Service Agreemenk (Issue Checklist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526 Short-Form Services Agreement ................................ 530 Service Description Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 Performer Contract: Deal Memo ................................533 Performer Contract: Pre-test Option and Series Option Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Music (Issue Checklist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Composer Deal Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 Performer Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Video Synchronization and Distribution License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Television Film Synchronization License ............................ 544 Performance License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 Sample Motion Picture or Television Film Cue Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547 . Design/Locotion (Issue Checklist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 .. Location Release. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549. Production Facilities and Equipment (Issue Checklist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 Lab Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Appendix 7.1 Business Entities and Tax (Issue Checklist) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . ............ .......................................... 558

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Koha 18.11 - INSEAD Catalogue
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