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Sickness, disability and work: breaking the barriers

Author: Andersson, Patrick ; Förster, MichaelCorporate author:OECD Employment Analysis and Policy Division - Directorate for Employment ; OECD Social Policy Division - Directorate for EmploymentPublisher: OECD, 2007.Language: EnglishDescription: Graphs ; 27 cm.ISBN: 9789264038158Type of document: Book Online Access: Click here Bibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical referencesContents Note: Vol. 2 " Australia, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom", 176 p.
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Includes bibliographical references

Vol. 2 " Australia, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom", 176 p.

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Sickness, Disability and Work: Breaking the Barriers Vol 2: Australia, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom Table of Contents Executive Summary and Policy Recommendations............................................................. 11 Chapter 1. Key Trends and Outcomes.................................................................................... 37 1.1. Employment and unemployment of people with disability........................................... 38 A. Macroeconomic environment and labour market trends......................................... 38 B. Employment among people with disability .............................................................. 39 C. Unemployment and inactivity among people with disability .................................. 1.2. Financial resources of people with disability: income and poverty.............................. A. Relative income levels ................................................................................................. B. Incidence of low incomes and poverty risks......................................................................... 41 44 44 45 1.3. Costs of disability benefit schemes: public spending and benefit dependence . . ...... 47 A. Amount and composition of public spending........................................................... 47 B. Trends in benefit recipiency...................................................................................... 48 C. Average benefit levels................................................................................................... 50 4. Exclusion and inclusion errors: disability benefit recipiency and disability prevalence....................................................................................................................... 51 A. Understanding the concept of "disability" ................................................................ 51 B. Exclusion and inclusion errors .............................................................................. 52 1.5. Demographic challenges: population ageing and future labour supply shortages...... 54 A. Effects of ageing on recent trends among disability beneficiaries ........................... 54 B. Demographic challenges on disability policies over the coming decades................ 54 1.6. Impact of labour market requirements: work and health ........................................... 57 A. Disability and health trends in the population....................................................... 57 B. Labour market requirements and health .............................................................. 58 1.7. Conclusion.................................................................................................................... 62 Notes .......................................................................................................................................... 63 Chapter 2. Evaluating Recent and Ongoing Reforms ............................................................ 65 2.1. Australia: new participation requirements through welfare reform ............................ 68 A. Expansion of services and new funding mechanisms............................................. 68 B. Increasing workforce participation and reducing welfare dependency................... 70 2.2. Luxembourg: managing partial work capacity in a different way................................ A. Reducing the inflow into disability benefits.............................................................. B. Helping people with partial work capacity getting into work .................................. 2.3. Spain: decentralising and concentrating decision powers.......................................... A. Devolution of responsibilities to the regional level.................................................... B. Concentration of benefit matters at one single authority ....................................... 2.4. The United Kingdom: rebalancing rights and opportunities ....................................... A. Switching to a more active policy approach.............................................................. 71 71 72 73 73 74 75 75 B. Redefining rights and responsibilities .................................................................... 76 C. Improving assessments and work incentives.......................................................... 77 2.5. The likely impact of recent and ongoing reform........................................................... 78 Notes ......................................................................................................................................... 80 Chapter 3. Absence Monitoring and Assessment of Disability .................................................. 81 3.1. Inflow into disability: what do we know?...................................................................... A. Evidence on inflows into disability............................................................................ B. Evidence on sickness absence................................................................................ C. Pathways into disability benefits ............................................................................ 3.2. Preventing disability early on....................................................................................... A. Early identification and early intervention.............................................................. B. The role of employers.................................................................................................. C. Monitoring absences of sick workers....................................................................... D. Health status monitoring of the unemployed ........................................................ 3.3. Disability benefit for those who need it ....................................................................... A. Assessing disability................................................................................................... B. Health conditions and disability benefits .............................................................. C. Addressing partial work capacity............................................................................ 82 82 85 87 88 88 90 92 94 95 95 98 101 3.4. Future policy directions............................................................................................... 104 Notes ......................................................................................................................................... 105 Chapter 4. Financial Incentives and Disincentives for People with Disability ................... 107 4.1. The "attractiveness" of disability benefits .................................................................... A. The relative importance of disability benefits ......................................................... B. The tax/benefit position of persons with disability................................................ C. Adequacy and generosity of replacement rates....................................................... 4.2. Disability benefits as an early retirement pathway..................................................... A. Age bias in disability benefit recipiency ................................................................... B. Accounting for disability prevalence ........................................................................ C. Benefit system design and reform........................................................................... D. Different pathways into retirement......................................................................... 4.3. Work incentives and disincentives for disability benefit recipients............................. A. Does it pay to work?................................................................................................. B. The impact of increasing work efforts....................................................................... 4.4. The impact of recent and planned benefit reforms on work incentives ..................... 108 108 110 112 115 115 115 116 118 120 120 122 123 A. Australia................................................................................................................... 123 B. Luxembourg............................................................................................................... 125 C. Spain..................................................................................................................... 126 D. United Kingdom ........................................................................................................ 128 4.5. Conclusions................................................................................................................. 129 Notes ......................................................................................................................................... 131 Annex 4.A1. Background Tables for Different Household Types......................................... 132 Chapter 5. Employment Policy - New Challenges and Directions............................................. 137 5.1. Employment and disability: where do we stand? ....................................................... 138 5.2. More and better targeted employment services ........................................................... 142 A. What support is suitable for people with disability................................................ 142 B. What support is available for people with disability.............................................. 143 C. Participation in activation measures.................................................................... D. Access to employment activation services............................................................. 5.3. A new balance of rights and responsibilities ............................................................. A. New directions for the state to help people with health problems back to work... 147 149 152 152 B. Increasing responsibilities for individuals with health problems.......................... 158 C. New ways to better involve employers .................................................................... 161 5.4. Future policy directions.............................................................................................. 167 Notes ........................................................................................................................................ 169 Bibliography................................................................................................................................. 171 List of Acronyms...................................................................................................................... 175

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