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PISA 2006 : science competencies for tomorrow's world

Author: Schleicher, Andreas ; Cresswell, John ; Ikeda, Miyako ; Shewbridge, Claire Corporate author: OECD Series: Program for international student assessment Publisher: OECD, 2006.Language: EnglishDescription: Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 27 cm.ISBN: 9789264040007Type of document: Book Online Access: Click here Note: c2007Bibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical referencesContents Note: Vol. 1 "Analysis", 383 p.
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c2007

Includes bibliographical references

Vol. 1 "Analysis", 383 p.

Digitized

PISATM 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World Volume 1 Analysis Table of Contents FOREWORD............................................................................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................. 15 PISA -- An overview................................................................................................................................................ 16 n PISA 2006 -- focus on science.......................................................................................................................... 16 n The PISA surveys.............................................................................................................................................. 16 What PISA measures and how............................................................................................................................... 20 n Performance in PISA: what is measured............................................................................................................20 n The PISA instruments: how measurement takes place...................................................................................... 22 n The PISA student population............................................................................................................................. 22 What is different about the PISA 2006 survey?.................................................................................................... 25 n A detailed understanding of student performance in and attitudes to science................................................... 25 n A comparison of change over time..................................................................................................................... 26 n The introduction of new background information about students....................................................................... 26 Organisation of the report...................................................................................................................................... 26 READER'S GUIDE.................................................................................................................................................... 29 CHAPTER 2 A PROFILE OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE................................................................ 31 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 32 The PISA approach to assessing student performance in science.................................................................... 33 n The PISA approach to science........................................................................................................................... 33 n The PISA definition of scientific literacy............................................................................................................. 34 n The PISA science framework............................................................................................................................. 35 n The PISA 2006 science units............................................................................................................................. 40 n How the results are reported.............................................................................................................................. 41 n A profile of PISA science questions................................................................................................................... 44 What students can do in science........................................................................................................................... 48 n Student performance in science......................................................................................................................... 48 An overview of student performance in different areas of science.................................................................... 62 n Student performance on the different science comptetencies............................................................................62 n Student performance in the different knowledge domains................................................................................. 71 A detailed analysis of student performance on the science comptetency scales.............................................76 n Student performance in identifying scientific issues..........................................................................................76 n Student performance in explaining phenomena scientifically........................................................................... 86 n Student performance in using scientific evidence............................................................................................ 100 Implications for policy...........................................................................................................................................113 n Meeting demands for scientific excellence..................................................................................................... 113 n Securing strong baseline science competencies............................................................................................ 113 n Strengths and weaknesses in different aspects of science............................................................................. 114 n Gender differences......................................................................................................................................... 114 n Do the results matter?.................................................................................................................................... 115 CHAPTER 3 A PROFILE OF STUDENT ENGAGEMENT IN SCIENCE................................................................121 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................122 Measuring attitudes and engagement in PISA................................................................................................... 122 n Notes on the interpretation of the measures................................................................................................... 125 Do students support scientific enquiry?............................................................................................................ 127 n General value of science................................................................................................................................ 127 n Support for scientific enquiry...........................................................................................................................130 n Personal value of science............................................................................................................................... 133 Do students believe they can succeed in science?.......................................................................................... 133 n Students' confidence in overcoming difficulties in science..............................................................................134 n Students' self-concept in science....................................................................................................................137 Are students interested in science?................................................................................................................... 139 n Interest in learning science as a subject......................................................................................................... 139 n The importance of doing well in science......................................................................................................... 145 n Motivation to learn science because it is useful.............................................................................................. 145 n Science-related activities................................................................................................................................ 153 Do students feel responsible towards resources and the environment?....................................................... 155 n Awareness of environmental issues............................................................................................................... 155 n Students' level of concern for environmental issues......................................................................................158 n Optimism regarding environmental issues.....................................................................................................158 n Responsibility for sustainable development................................................................................................... 161 n Gender differences in responsibility towards resources and the environment...............................................163 Overview of gender differences in science performance and in attitudes towards science......................... 163 Implications for policy..........................................................................................................................................164 CHAPTER 4 QUALITY AND EQUITY IN THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS..................... 169 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................170 Securing consistent standards for schools: a profile of between- and within-school differences in student performance........................................................................................................................................170 The quality of learning outcomes and equity in the distribution of learning opportunities.......................... 173 n Immigrant status and student performance................................................................................................... 174 n Socio-economic background and student and school performance.............................................................. 181 Socio-economic difference and the role that education policy can play in moderating the impact of socio-economic disadvantage........................................................................................................................ 193 Socio-economic background and the role of parents....................................................................................... 196 Implications for policy..........................................................................................................................................198 n n n n n A concentration of low-performing students.................................................................................................. 199 Differing slopes and strengths of socio-economic gradients..........................................................................200 Differing socio-economic profiles...................................................................................................................202 Differing gradients across schools.................................................................................................................203 Differing gradients within schools.................................................................................................................. 204 CHAPTER 5 SCHOOL AND SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN SCIENCE.......................................................................................................................................213 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 214 Admittance, selection and grouping policies.....................................................................................................216 n School admittance policies.............................................................................................................................. 216 n Institutional differentiation and grade repetition...............................................................................................220 n Ability grouping within schools.........................................................................................................................223 n The relationship between school admittance, selection and ability grouping and student performance in science...................................................................................................................... 225 Public and private stakeholders in the management and financing of schools............................................. 229 n The relationship between public and private stakeholders in the management and financing of schools and student performance in science...................................................................................................................... 229 The role of parents: school choice and parental influence on schools...........................................................232 n The relationship between school choice and parental influence on schools and student performance in science...................................................................................................................... 236 Accountability arrangements...............................................................................................................................237 n Nature and use of accountability systems....................................................................................................... 240 · Feedback on student performance to parents and the public..........................................................................240 n The existence of standards-based external examinations...............................................................................242 n The relationship between accountability policies and student performance in science................................... 243 Approaches to school management and the involvement of stakeholders in decision making................... 245 n Involvement of school staff in decision making at school...............................................................................245 n Involvement of stakeholders in decision making............................................................................................ 249 n The relationship between school autonomy and student performance in science......................................... 252 School resources..................................................................................................................................................254 s Human resources reported by school principals............................................................................................. 254 n Material resources reported by school principals............................................................................................ 256 n Learning time and educational resources reported by students and school principals....................................258 n The relationship between school resources and student performance in science...........................................262 The joint impact of school and system resources, practices, and policies on student performance.......... 264 The joint impact of school and system resources, practices, and policies on the relationship between socio-economic background and student performance in science..................................................272 Implications for policy..........................................................................................................................................275 CHAPTER 6 A PROFILE OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN READING AND MATHEMATICS FROM PISA 2000 TO PISA 2006...................................................................................................... 283 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................... 284 What students can do in reading.........................................................................................................................284 n A profile of PISA reading questions.................................................................................................................286 Student performance in reading..........................................................................................................................293 n The mean performances of countries/economies in reading...........................................................................295 n How student performance in reading has changed......................................................................................... 301 n Gender differences in reading......................................................................................................................... 303 What students can do in mathematics............................................................................................................... 304 n A profile of PISA mathematics questions........................................................................................................ 304 Student performance in mathematics................................................................................................................ 312 n The mean performances of countries/economies in mathematics.................................................................. 315 n How student performance in mathematics has changed................................................................................ 319 n Gender differences in mathematics................................................................................................................ 320 Implications for policy..........................................................................................................................................321 n Reading...........................................................................................................................................................321 n Mathematics....................................................................................................................................................322 n Gender differences......................................................................................................................................... 323 REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................................... 327 ANNEX A TECHNICAL BACKGROUND............................................................................................................... 331 Annex A1: Construction of indices and other derived measures from the student, school and parent context questionnaires.....................................................................................................332 Annex A2: The PISA target population, the PISA samples and the definition of schools...................................... 347 Annex A3: Standard errors, significance tests and subgroup comparisons........................................................... 359 Annex A4: Quality assurance................................................................................................................................ 362 Annex A5: Development of the PISA assessment instruments............................................................................. 363 Annex A6: Reliability of the coding of responses to open-ended items................................................................. 367 Annex A7: Comparison of results from the PISA 2000, PISA 2003 and PISA 2006 assessments........................ 369 Annex A8: Technical notes on multilevel regression analysis................................................................................372 Annex A9: SPSS syntax to prepare data files for multilevel regression analysis................................................... 372 Annex A10: Technical notes on measures of students' attitudes to science..........................................................372 ANNEX B THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PISA - A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT..............377 ANNEX C LINKS TO THE DATA UNDERLYING THIS REPORT..........................................................................383

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