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We the people: an introduction to American politics

Author: Ginsberg, Benjamin ; Lowi, Theodore J. ; Weir, Margaret ; Champagne, Anthony ; Forshee, John ; Harpham, Edward J.Publisher: Norton 2005.Edition: 5th ed. Texas ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 1095 p. : Graphs/Ill./Maps/Photos ; 26 cm.ISBN: 0393926214Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary
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Book Asia Campus
Main Collection
Print J10.33 .U7 G56 2005
(Browse shelf)
900183062
Available 900183062
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print J10.33 .U7 G56 2005
(Browse shelf)
001231707
Available 001231707
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Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary

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We The People An Introduction to American Politics Contents PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1 AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE 2 What Americans Think about Government 6 Trust in Government Political Efficacy 10 8 Part I FOUNDATIONS What Americans Know about Government 13 Citizenship: Knowledge and Participation The Necessity of Political Knowledge 14 13 Government 15 Is Government Needed? Forms of Government Limiting Government 16 17 18 18 16 Access to Government: The Expansion of Participation Influencing the Government through Participation: Politics American Political Culture: Shared Values, but Disagreements over the Role of Government 19 Liberty Equality 20 21 22 Democracy Does the System Uphold American Political Values?: Thinking Critically about Liberty, Equality, and Democracy 24 Values and the Ends of Government Who Benefits from Government? 30 30 What You Can Do: Test the Political Waters 31 SUMMARY 33 FOR FURTHER READING 34 STUDY OUTLINE 34 PRACTICE QUIZ 34 KEY TERMS 35 2 CONSTITUTION AND THE THE FOUNDING 36 The First Founding: Interests and Conflicts 39 British Taxes and Colonial Interests The Declaration of Independence The Articles of Confederation 43 40 41 42 Political Strife and the Radicalizing of the Colonists The Second Founding: From Compromise to Constitution 43 International Standing and Balance of Power The Annapolis Convention Shays's Rebellion 45 45 44 44 The Constitutional Convention The Constitution 50 The Legislative Branch The Executive Branch 52 The Judicial Branch 53 National Unity and Power Amending the Constitution Ratifying the Constitution 54 54 54 54 50 Constitutional Limits on the National Government's Power The Fight for Ratification 57 Federalists versus Antifederalists Reflections on the Founding 63 58 The Citizen's Role and the Changing Constitution 64 Amendments: Many Are Called, Few Are Chosen The Case of the Equal Rights Amendment 67 64 Which Were Chosen? An Analysis of the Twenty-Seven 68 Thinking Critically about Liberty, Equality, and Democracy 73 What You Can Do: Become a Framer 74 SUMMARY 75 FOR FURTHER READING 77 STUDY OUTLINE 77 PRACTICE QUIZ 79 KEY TERMS 79 3 FEDERALISM 80 The Federal Framework 84 Federalism in the Constitution 84 Restraining National Power with Dual Federalism, 1789-1937 88 Federalism and the Slow Growth of the National Government's Power 90 The Changing Role of the States 93 Who Does What? The Changing Federal Framework 96 Expansion of the National Government Federal Grants 97 99 100 Cooperative Federalism 97 Regulated Federalism and National Standards New Federalism and State Control 103 Devolution: For Whose Benefit? 108 Thinking Critically about Liberty versus Equality 110 What You Can Do: Participate at Different Levels of the Federal System 111 SUMMARY 113 FOR FURTHER READING 115 STUDY OUTLINE 115 PRACTICE QUIZ 116 KEY TERMS 116 4 CIVIL LIBERTIES 118 A Brief History of the Bill of Rights 121 Nationalizing the Bill of Rights 122 The First Amendment and Freedom of Religion 126 Separation Between Church and State Free Exercise of Religion 129 126 The First Amendment and Freedom of Speech and the Press 131 Absolutely Protected Speech Freedom of the Press 134 Conditionally Protected Speech 131 135 The Second Amendment and the Right to Bear Arms 139 Rights of the Criminally Accused 141 The Fourth Amendment and Searches and Seizures The Fifth Amendment 144 The Sixth Amendment and the Right to Counsel 142 146 147 The Eighth Amendment and Cruel and Unusual Punishment The Right to Privacy 149 Thinking Critically about the Future of Civil Liberties: Does the War on Terrorism Affect It? 154 What You Can Do: Defend Liberty 156 SUMMARY 159 FOR FURTHER READING 159 STUDY OUTLINE 160 PRACTICE QUIZ 160 KEY TERMS 161 5 CIVIL RIGHTS 162 The Struggle for Civil Rights 165 Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement 165 The Link to the Women's Rights Movement 166 The Civil War Amendments to the Constitution 167 Civil Rights and the Supreme Court: "Separate but Equal" Organizing for Equality 168 169 Litigating for Equality after World War II The Civil Rights Acts 175 167 Civil Rights after Brown v. Board of Education 171 The Universalization of Civil Rights 183 Women and Gender Discrimination Latinos and Asian Americans Native Americans 190 Disabled Americans The Aged 191 Gays and Lesbians 191 191 186 183 Affirmative Action 193 The Supreme Court and the Burden of Proof 193 198 Referendums on Affirmative Action 198 Thinking Critically about the Affirmative Action Debate What You Can Do: Mobilize for Civil Rights 203 SUMMARY 206 FOR FURTHER READING 206 STUDY OUTLINE 207 PRACTICE QUIZ 207 KEY TERMS 208 6 Part II PUBLIC OPINION 210 Political Values 213 Fundamental Values 213 Forms of Disagreement 215 How Political Values Are Formed Influences on Our Political Values From Political Values to Ideology 215 217 226 POLITICS How We Form Political Opinions 229 Political Knowledge 231 The Influence of Political Leaders, Private Groups, and the Media 232 Measuring Public Opinion 237 Constructing Public Opinion from Surveys 238 Thinking Critically about Public Opinion and Democracy 244 What You Can Do: Become Politically Knowledgeable 247 SUMMARY 247 FOR FURTHER READING 249 STUDY OUTLINE 249 PRACTICE QUIZ 250 KEY TERMS 251 7 THE MEDIA 252 The Media Industry and Government 255 Types of Media 255 259 Regulation of the Broadcast Media 258 Organization and Ownership of the Media Nationalization of the News 264 News Coverage 265 Journalists 266 Subjects of the News 267 270 The Power of Consumers Media Power in American Politics 272 Shaping Events 272 273 280 The Sources of Media Power The Rise of Adversarial Journalism Thinking Critically about Media Power and Democracy 282 What You Can Do: Analyze News Sources 283 SUMMARY 285 FOR FURTHER READING 285 STUDY OUTLINE 286 PRACTICE QUIZ 286 KEY TERMS 287 8 POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND VOTING 288 Political Participation Forms of Participation Voting 294 290 291 Who Participates, and How? 297 African Americans Latinos 300 Asian Americans 300 302 304 Women versus Men 302 Religious Identity and Politics Age and Participation 306 Explaining Political Participation 308 Socioeconomic Status Civic Engagement 308 308 Formal Obstacles 313 Political Mobilization 315 Thinking Critically about Political Participation and Liberty, Equality, and Democracy 319 What You Can Do: Become a Voter 320 SUMMARY 323 FOR FURTHER READING 324 STUDY OUTLINE 324 PRACTICE QUIZ 324 KEY TERMS 325 9 POLITICAL PARTIES 326 Outgrowths of the Electoral Process 329 329 What Are Political Parties? 329 Outgrowths of the Policy-Making Process The Two-Party System in America 330 Historical Origins 330 Party Systems 337 Electoral Alignments and Realignments American Third Parties 343 341 Party Organization 347 National Convention 348 353 353 National Committee 352 Congressional Campaign Committees State and Local Party Organizations Parties and the Electorate 354 Group Affiliations 355 Parties and Elections 357 Recruiting Candidates 357 Nominations 359 Getting Out the Vote 359 360 Facilitating Voter Choice Parties and Government 360 Parties and Policy Parties in Congress President and Party 360 361 363 Thinking Critically about the Role of Parties in a Democracy 364 What You Can Do: Become a Party Activist 367 SUMMARY 369 FOR FURTHER READING 370 STUDY OUTLINE 370 PRACTICE QUIZ 371 KEY TERMS 372 10 CAMPAIGNS AND ELECTIONS 374 Elections in America 377 Types of Elections 377 The Criteria for Winning 379 Electoral Districts 380 The Ballot 382 The Electoral College 387 Election Campaigns 388 Advisers 389 Polling 390 The Primaries 392 Presidential Elections 393 The Convention 393 The General Election Campaign and High-Tech Politics 398 Campaigns and Political Equality: From Labor-Intensive to Capital-Intensive Politics 401 How Voters Decide 403 Partisan Loyalty 404 Issues 405 Candidate Characteristics 406 The 2004 Elections 407 Building Blocks of Republican Success Democratic Opportunities 410 Republican Strategy 411 The End Game 412 409 Money and Politics 413 Sources of Campaign Funds 414 Implications for Democracy 419 Thinking Critically about the Electoral Process 420 What You Can Do: Campaign on Campus 420 SUMMARY 423 FOR FURTHER READING 423 STUDY OUTLINE 424 PRACTICE QUIZ 424 KEY TERMS 425 11 GROUPS AND INTERESTS 426 The Character of Interest Groups 430 What Interests Are Represented? 430 What Interests Are Not Represented? 432 Organizational Components 433 The Characteristics of Members 436 The Proliferation of Groups 438 The Expansion of Government 440 440 The New Politics Movement and Public Interest Groups Strategies: The Quest for Political Power 441 Direct Lobbying 441 Cultivating Access 445 Using the Courts (Litigation) Mobilizing Public Opinion Using Electoral Politics 450 448 447 Thinking Critically about Groups and Interests: The Dilemmas of Reform 458 What You Can Do: Join an Interest Group 459 SUMMARY 461 FOR FURTHER READING 463 STUDY OUTLINE 463 PRACTICE QUIZ 464 KEY TERMS 464 12 CONGRESS Part III 466 INSTITUTIONS 470 Congress: Representing the American People 470 House and Senate: Differences in Representation Sociological versus Agency Representation The Electoral Connection Direct Patronage 481 476 471 The Organization of Congress 483 Party Leadership in the House and Senate 484 The Committee System: The Core of Congress 486 The Staff System: Staffers and Agencies 489 Informal Organization: The Caucuses 490 Rules of Lawmaking: How a Bill Becomes a Law 490 Committee Deliberation Debate 493 492 Conference Committee: Reconciling House and Senate Versions of Legislation 494 Presidential Action 494 How Congress Decides 495 Constituency Interest Groups 495 496 Party Discipline 498 Weighing Diverse Influences 502 Beyond Legislation: Other Congressional Powers 502 Oversight 502 Advice and Consent: Special Senate Powers 504 Impeachment 508 Thinking Critically about Congress and Democracy 509 What You Can Do: Make Contact with Congress 512 SUMMARY 513 FOR FURTHER READING 515 STUDY OUTLINE 516 PRACTICE QUIZ 517 KEY TERMS 518 13 THE PRESIDENCY 520 The Constitutional Basis of the Presidency 523 The Constitutional Powers of the Presidency 525 Expressed Powers Delegated Powers 526 538 The Presidency as an Institution 540 The Cabinet 540 The White House Staff 542 542 The Executive Office of the President The Vice Presidency 543 The First Lady 544 President and Policy 545 The Contemporary Bases of Presidential Power 546 Party as a Source of Power Going Public 547 553 547 The Administrative State Thinking Critically about Presidential Power and Democracy 557 What You Can Do: Work in the White House 559 SUMMARY 562 FOR FURTHER READING 562 STUDY OUTLINE 562 PRACTICE QUIZ 563 KEY TERMS 564 14 BUREAUCRACY IN A DEMOCRACY 566 Bureaucracy and Bureaucrats 569 The Size of the Federal Service Bureaucrats 573 570 The Organization of the Executive Branch 575 Promoting the Public Welfare Providing National Security Maintaining a Strong Economy 577 582 591 Can Bureaucracy Be Reinvented? 598 Can the Bureaucracy Be Reduced? 599 Termination Devolution Privatization 600 601 603 Can Bureaucracy Be Controlled? 604 The President as Chief Executive 604 Thinking Critically about Responsible Bureaucracy in a Democracy 606 What You Can Do: Get Inside the Bureaucracy 609 SUMMARY 611 FOR FURTHER READING 612 STUDY OUTLINE 612 PRACTICE QUIZ 613 KEY TERMS 613 15 THE FEDERAL COURTS The Legal System 617 Cases and the Law Types of Courts 617 618 614 Federal Jurisdiction 620 The Lower Federal Courts 620 The Appellate Courts 621 The Supreme Court 621 622 How Judges Are Appointed The Power of the Supreme Court: Judicial Review 626 Judicial Review of Acts of Congress 627 Judicial Review of State Actions 627 Judicial Review of Federal Agency Actions Judicial Review and Lawmaking Controlling the Flow of Cases 629 632 636 634 640 643 How Cases Reach the Supreme Court 628 Lobbying for Access: Interests and the Court The Supreme Court's Procedures Explaining Supreme Court Decisions Judicial Power and Politics 646 Traditional Limitations on the Federal Courts Two Judicial Revolutions 647 Thinking Critically about the Judiciary, Liberty, and Democracy 649 646 What You Can Do: File Amicus Curiae Briefs 649 SUMMARY 651 FOR FURTHER READING 652 STUDY OUTLINE 653 PRACTICE QUIZ 654 KEY TERMS 654 16 GOVERNMENT AND THE ECONOMY656 Why Is Government Involved in the Economy? 659 Managing the Economy 660 Protecting the Welfare and Property of Individuals Regulating Competition Providing Public Goods Laissez-Faire 664 Keynesians 665 Monetarists 666 667 661 664 661 Part IV POLICY Should Government Be Involved in the Economy? 664 What Are the Goals of Economic Policy? 666 Promote a Strong and Stable Economy Promote Business Development 671 Promote International Trade 673 Regulate Industrial Relations 675 Protect the Environment 676 Protect Consumers 678 What Are the Tools of Economic Policy? 680 Monetary Policies 680 690 692 Fiscal Policies 682 Regulation and Antitrust Policy Subsidies and Contracting The Politics of Economic Policy Making 694 Thinking Crritically about Economic Policy and Inequality 695 What You Can Do: Assess the Impact of Economic Policies 696 SUMMARY 697 FOR FURTHER READING 699 STUDY OUTLINE 699 PRACTICE QUIZ 701 KEY TERMS 701 17 SOCIAL POLICY The Welfare State 705 702 The History of the Social Welfare System Foundations of the Welfare State 707 Welfare Reform 711 How Do We Pay for the Welfare State? 714 705 Opening Opportunity 717 Education Policies Health Policies Housing Policies 717 722 723 726 Employment and Training Programs Who Gets What from Social Policy? 728 The Elderly 729 730 730 731 732 The Middle Class The Working Poor The Nonworking Poor Minorities, Women, and Children Thinking Critically about Social Policy and Equality 735 What You Can Do: Question Social Policy 737 SUMMARY 739 FOR FURTHER READING 740 STUDY OUTLINE 740 PRACTICE QUIZ 741 KEY TERMS 742 18 FOREIGN POLICY AND DEMOCRACY 744 The Players: The Makers and Shapers of Foreign Policy 747 Who Makes Foreign Policy? Who Shapes Foreign Policy? Putting It Together 754 747 751 The Values in American Foreign Policy 755 Legacies of the Traditional System 755 The Great Leap to World Power 756 The Instruments of Modern American Foreign Policy 758 Diplomacy 758 760 The United Nations The International Monetary Structure Economic Aid 763 Collective Security 766 Military Deterrence 768 762 Roles Nations Play 774 Choosing a Role 774 Thinking Critically about American Foreign Policy Values Today 776 What You Can Do: Voice Your Views to Congress 785 SUMMARY 787 FOR FURTHER READING 788 STUDY OUTLINE 788 PRACTICE QUIZ 789 KEY TERMS 790 19 THE POLITICAL CULTURE, PEOPLE, AND ECONOMY OF TEXAS 792 Texas Political Culture 795 The One-Party State 796 Provincialism 797 797 Business Dominance Part V TEXAS POLITICS The Land 798 The Gulf Coastal Plains 799 The Interior Lowlands 799 The Great Plains 800 The Basin and Range Province 800 Economic Change in Texas 801 Cotton 802 Cattle Ranching 803 Oil in the Texas Economy 804 The Emergence of the High-Tech Economy 810 NAFTA 811 The People: Texas Demography 812 Anglos 813 816 819 Hispanics 814 African Americans Age 818 Poverty and Wealth Urbanization 820 The Urban Political Economy SUMMARY 825 FOR FURTHER READING 826 STUDY OUTLINE 826 PRACTICE QUIZ 827 KEY TERMS 827 821 20 THE TEXAS CONSTITUTION 828 The Role of a State Constitution 830 The Constitution of Coahuila y Tejas, 1827 831 The Constitution of the Republic of Texas, 1836 832 The Texas State Constitution of 1845 835 The Constitution of 1861: Texas Joins the Confederacy 837 The Constitution of 1866: Texas Rejoins the Union 838 The Reconstruction Constitution of 1869 839 The Constitution of 1876 841 The Constitution of Texas Today 843 The Preamble 843 Article I: Bill of Rights 844 844 845 Article II: The Powers of Government Article III: Legislative Department Article IV: Executive Department 846 Article V: Judicial Department 846 Article VI: Suffrage 847 Article VII: Education 847 Article VIII: Taxation and Revenue 847 Articles IX and XI: Local Government Articles X, XII, XIII, and XIV 848 Article XV: Impeachment 848 Article XVI: General Provisions 849 Article XVII: Amending the Constitution 848 849 Recent Attempts to Rewrite the Texas Constitution 849 Sharpstown and the Failed Constitutional Reforms of 1974 The 1999 Ratliff-Junell Proposal 850 The 2003 Amendments 852 849 SUMMARY 856 FOR FURTHER READING 857 STUDY OUTLINE 857 PRACTICE QUIZ 859 KEY TERMS 859 21 PARTIES AND ELECTIONS IN TEXAS 860 The Role of Political Parties in Texas Politics 862 Party Organization 862 Texas's History as a One-Party State 864 The Growth of the Republican Party 866 Characteristics of Republicans and Democrats in Texas Hispanics and the Future of Party Politics in Texas 870 868 Elections in Texas 873 Primary Elections 874 General Election Special Elections 874 875 Participation in Texas Elections 875 Earlier Restrictions on the Franchise Qualifications to Vote 878 Low Voter Turnout 878 Early Voting 881 875 Campaigns 882 Three Pivotal Elections 887 The Beachhead: John Tower's Election to the U.S. Senate in 1961 887 Creating a Two-Party State: The Election of Governor Bill Clements in 1978 889 Clayton Williams Versus Ann Richards in 1990 891 The Lasting Significance SUMMARY 895 FOR FURTHER READING 896 STUDY OUTLINE 897 PRACTICE QUIZ 898 KEY TERMS 898 894 22 INTEREST GROUPS, LOBBYING, AND LOBBYISTS 900 Interest Groups in the Political Process 902 The Bond That Lasts: Interest Groups and Policy Makers Types of Interest Groups and Lobbyists 904 Getting Access to Policy Makers Who Represents Bubba? 908 906 908 915 903 Another Side to Lobbying: Show Me the Money Getting Out the Vote 913 Suppose Interest Groups Want to Defeat a Candidate The Lobbying "Bidness": Three Stories 918 Texans for Lawsuit Reform 918 The Chemical Lobby The Trial Lawyer Lobby SUMMARY 924 FOR FURTHER READING 925 STUDY OUTLINE 925 PRACTICE QUIZ 925 KEY TERMS 926 920 922 23 THE TEXAS LEGISLATURE Structure 930 Bicameralism Membership 930 931 928 Sessions of the Legislature 933 Regular Sessions Special Sessions 933 933 Powers of the Legislature 934 Legislative Powers 934 Non legislative Powers 935 How a Bill Becomes a Law 936 Introduction in the House Referral 937 Committee Action Floor Action 939 940 939 937 Conference Committee Governor 941 Other Players in the Legislative Process 941 Governor Media Courts Lobbyist Public 942 944 944 945 945 945 Comptroller of Public Accounts Power in the Legislature 945 Leadership 945 Centralizing Power: Sources of the Leadership's Power 946 Where Power and Partisanship Matter: The Redistricting Battle 949 SUMMARY 953 FOR FURTHER READING 954 STUDY OUTLINE 954 PRACTICE QUIZ 955 KEY TERMS 956 24 THE TEXAS EXECUTIVE BRANCH 958 The Governor 962 Qualifications Campaigns 963 964 962 962 Election and Term of Office Removal of a Governor Succession 964 Compensation 965 Staff 965 966 968 Executive Powers of the Governor Legislative Powers of the Governor Judicial Powers of the Governor 970 The Office and Its Occupants 971 The Plural Executive 971 Secretary of State Lieutenant Governor Attorney General 973 973 975 977 Commissioner of the General Land Office Commissioner of Agriculture 979 Comptroller of Public Accounts 979 Accountability of the Plural Executive The Plural Executive and the Governor Appointed Officials Elected Officials 982 989 990 980 981 Boards, Commissions, and Regulatory Agencies 982 Making Agencies Accountable SUMMARY 991 FOR FURTHER READING 993 STUDY OUTLINE 993 PRACTICE QUIZ 994 KEY TERMS 995 25 THE TEXASJUDICIARY 996 Court Structure 998 The Legal Process 1002 How Judges Are Selected 1006 Initial Appointment of Judges by the Governor The Elections Become Really Partisan 1007 The Name Game 1011 Minority Representation in the Texas Judiciary Alternative Means of Selection 1017 The 1988 Texas Supreme Court Races 1020 1006 1014 The Importance of the Texas Courts 1022 The Death Penalty Civil Cases SUMMARY 1026 FOR FURTHER READING 1027 STUDY OUTLINE 1027 PRACTICE QUIZ 1028 KEY TERMS 1029 1022 1023 Other Criminal Punishments 1024 26 LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN TEXAS 1030 County Government in Texas 1033 Numerous County Offices: Checks and Balances or Built-In Problems? 1033 Are Some Counties Too Small? 1036 The Functions of County Government 1040 County Governments in Perspective 1041 City Government in Texas 1042 Forms of Government in Texas Cities A Tale of Three Cities 1047 1044 Special Districts 1049 1049 1050 1053 Types of Special Districts School Districts 1049 Nonschool Special Districts Councils of Government (COGS) SUMMARY 1053 FOR FURTHER READING 1054 STUDY OUTLINE 1054 PRACTICE QUIZ 1055 KEY TERMS 1055 27 PUBLIC POLICY IN TEXAS 1056 Taxing and Spending in Texas 1058 A Low-Tax State? 1058 The Constitution and the Budget The Budgetary Process Revenue in Texas 1061 1064 1060 1059 The Question of the Income Tax in Texas Other State Revenue 1065 Expenditures in Texas 1066 The 2004 Budget Crisis in Texas 1069 Crimes and Corrections Policy 1070 History of the Prison System 1070 Texas Crime and Corrections 1071 Education Policy in Texas 1076 Desegregation 1078 Equity in the Public School System Education Policy in Perspective 1079 1081 Educational Excellence and Accountability in Texas 1083 Welfare Policy 1084 Poverty in Texas 1084 Welfare in Texas, 1935-1996 1086 The Idea of Dependency and Welfare Reform 1089 Evaluating Welfare Reform SUMMARY 1092 FOR FURTHER READING 1093 STUDY OUTLINE 1093 PRACTICE QUIZ 1091 1095 KEY TERMS 1095 APPENDIX A 1 The Declaration of Independence A3 The Articles of Confederation A6 The Constitution of the United States of America A10 Amendments to the Constitution A16 The Federalist Papers A21 Presidents and Vice Presidents A26 GLOSSARY A29 ENDNOTES A41 ILLUSTRATION CREDITS A69 ANSWER KEY A73 INDEX A75

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