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Foundations of behavioral research

Author: Kerlinger, Fred N. ; Lee, Howard B.Publisher: Wadsworth, 2000. ; Thomson Learning, 2000.Edition: 4th ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 890 p. : Graphs/Ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9780155078970Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Foundations of Behavioral Research Contents Part One Chapter 1 The Language and Approach of Science ....................................................... 1 Science and the Scientific Approach .............................................................. 3 Science and Common Sense 4 Four Methods of Knowing 6 Science and Its Functions 8 The Aims of Science, Scientific Explanation, and Theory 11 Scientific Research: A Definition 14 The Scientific Approach 15 ProblemObstacle-Idea 15 Hypothesis 15 Reasoning-Deduction 15 Observation-Test-Experiment 17 Chapter Summary 19 Study Suggestions 20 Chapter 2 Problems and Hypotheses................................................................................ 23 Problems 24 Criteria of Problems and Problem Statements 25 Hypotheses 26 The Importance of Problems and Hypotheses 27 Virtues of Problems and Hypotheses 28 Problems, Values, and Definitions 30 Generality and Specificity of Problems and Hypotheses 31 The Multivariable Nature of Behavorial Research and Problems 32 Concluding Remarks: The Special Power of Hypotheses 33 Chapter Summary 34 Study Suggestions 35 Chapter 3 Constructs, Variables, and Definitions .......................................................... 41 Concepts and Constructs 42 Variables 42 Constitutive and Operational Definitions of Constructs and Variables 43 Types of Variables 48 Independent and Dependent Variables 48 Active and Attribute Variables 53 Continuous and Categorical Variables 54 Constructs, Observables, and Latent Variables 56 Examples of Variations and Operational Definitions 57 Chapter Summary 61 Study Suggestions 62 xii CONTENTS Part Two Chapter 4 Sets, Relations, and Variance ........................................................................ 63 Sets .................................................................................................................... 65 Subsets 66 Set Operations 67 The Universal and Empty Sets; Set Negation 68 Set Diagrams 69 Set Operations with More Than Two Sets 70 Partitions and Cross Partitions 71 Levels of Discourse 74 Chapter Summary 77 Study Suggestions 78 Chapter 5 Relations ........................................................................................................ 81 Relations as Sets of Ordered Pairs 82 Determining Relations in Research 85 Rules of Correspondence and Mapping 87 Some Ways to Study Relations 88 Graphs 88 Tables 88 Graphs and Correlation 92 Research Examples 95 Multivariate Relations and Regression 98 Some Logic of Multivariate Inquiry 98 Multiple Relations and Regression 100 Chapter Summary 101 Study Suggestions 101 Chapter 6 Variance and Covariance ............................................................................. 103 Calculation of Means and Variances 104 Kinds of Variance 106 Population and Sample Variances 106 Systematic Variance 107 Between-Groups (Experimental) Variance 107 Error Variance 110 An Example of Systematic and Error Variance 111 A Subtractive Demonstration: Removing Between-Groups Variance from Total Variance 114 A Recap of Removing Between-Group Variance from Total Variance 117 Components of Variance 118 Covariance 119 The Computer Addendum 122 Chapter Summary 128 Study Suggestions 129 CONTENTS xiii Part Three Chapter 7 Probability, Randomness, and Sampling ................................................. 131 Probability ................................................................................................... 133 Definition of Probability 134 Sample Space, Sample Points, and Events 135 Determining Probabilities with Coins 138 An Experiment with Dice 139 Some Formal Theory 141 Compound Events and Their Probabilities 143 Independence, Mutual Exclusiveness, and Exhaustiveness 145 Conditional Probability 150 Definition of Conditional Probability 150 An Academic Example 152 Bayes' Theorem: Revising Probabilities 155 Example 156 Chapter Summary 158 Study Suggestions 159 Chapter 8 Sampling and Randomness ........................................................................ 163 Sampling, Random Sampling, and Representativeness 164 Randomness 167 An Example of Random Sampling 167 Randomization 169 A Senatorial Randomization Demonstration 171 Sample Size 175 Kinds of Samples 178 Some Books on Sampling 182 Chapter Summary 183 Study Suggestions 183 Computer Program Listing to Generate Table 8.2 186 Part Four Chapter 9 Analysis, Interpretation, Statistics, and Inference .................................. 189 Principles of Analysis and Interpretation ................................................ 191 Frequencies and Continuous 193 Rules of Categorization 194 Kinds of Statistical Analysis 198 Frequency Distributions 199 Graphs and Graphing 200 Measures of Central Tendency and Variability 202 Measures of Relations 203 Analysis of Differences 204 Analysis of Variance and Related Methods 205 Profile Analysis 207 Multivariate Analysis 208 xiv CONTENTS Indices 211 Social Indicators 213 The Interpretation of Research Data 214 Adequacy of Research Design, Methodology, Measurement, and Analysis 215 Negative and Inconclusive Results 216 Unhypothesized Relations and Unanticipated Findings 216 Proof Probability, and Interpretation 218 Chapter Summary 219 Study Suggestions 219 Chapter 10 The Analysis of Frequencies ................................................................... 221 Data and Variable Terminology 223 Crosstabs: Definitions and Purpose 224 Simple Crosstabs and Rules for Crosstab Construction 225 Calculation of Percentages 227 Statistical Significance and the X2 Test 229 Levels of Statistical Significance 232 Types of Crosstabs and Tables 236 One-Dimensional Tables 236 Two-Dimensional Tables 237 Two-Dimensional Tables, "True" Dichotomies, and Continuous Measures 240 Three- and k-Dimensional Tables 240 Specification 241 Crosstabulations, Relations, and Ordered Pairs 243 The Odds Ratio 246 Multivariate Analysis of Frequency Data 247 Computer Addendum 248 Chapter Summary 253 Study Suggestions 254 Chapter 11 Statistics: Purpose, Approach, Method .................................................257 The Basic Approach 257 Definition and Purpose of Statistics 258 Binomial Statistics 260 The Variance 262 The Law of Large Numbers 264 The Normal Probability Curve and the Standard Deviation 265 Interpretation of Data Using the Normal Probability Curve-Frequency Data 268 Interpretation of Data Using the Normal Probability Curve-Continuous Data 269 Chapter Summary 272 Study Suggestions 273 Chapter 12 Testing Hypotheses and the Standard Error ........................................ 275 Examples: Differences Between Means 276 Absolute and Relative Differences 277 CONTENTS xv Correlation Coefficients 278 Hypothesis Testing: Substantive and Null Hypotheses 279 The General Nature of a Standard Error 282 A Monte Carlo Demonstration 283 The Procedure 283 Generalizations 285 The Central Limit Theorem 286 The Standard Error of the Differences between Means 287 Statistical Inference 290 Testing Hypotheses and the Two Types of Errors 291 The Five Steps of Hypothesis Testing 295 Sample Size Determination 295 Example 297 Chapter Summary 299 Study Suggestions 300 Part Five Chapter 13 Analysis of Variance ..................................................................................... 305 Analysis of Variance: Foundations .......................................................... 307 Variance Breakdown: A Simple Example 308 The t-Ratio Approach 312 The Analysis of Variance Approach 313 An Example of a Statistically Significant Difference 315 Calculation of One-Way Analysis of Variance 317 A Research Example 321 Strength of Relations: Correlation and the Analysis of Variance 322 Broadening the Structure: Post Hoc Tests and Planned Comparisons 327 Post Hoc Tests 328 Planned Comparisons 328 Computer Addendum 331 t-Ratio or t-Test on SPSS 331 One-Way ANOVA on SPSS 336 Addendum 340 Chapter Summary 340 Study Suggestions 341 Chapter 14 Factorial Analysis of Variance ................................................................. 345 Two Research Examples 346 The Nature of Factorial Analysis of Variance 350 The Meaning of Interaction 352 A Simple Fictitious Example 352 Interaction: An Example 359 Kinds of Interaction 362 Notes of Caution 365 Interaction and Interpretation 367 xvi CONTENTS Factorial Analysis of Variance with Three or More Variables 368 Advantages and Virtues of Factorial Design and Analysis of Variance 371 Factorial Analysis of Variance: Control 372 Research Examples 374 Race, Sex, and College Admissions 374 The Effect of Gender, Type of Rape, and Information on Perception 375 Student Essays and Teacher Evaluation 376 Computer Addendum 377 Chapter Summary 384 Study Suggestions 385 Chapter 15 Analysis of Variance: Correlated Groups ............................................... 387 Definition of the Problem 388 A Fictitious Example 389 An Explanatory Digression 390 Reexamination of Table 15.2 Data 393 Further Considerations 394 Extracting Variances by Subtraction 397 Removal of Systematic Sources of Variance 398 Additional Correlated Analysis of Variance Designs 400 Research Examples 403 Ironic Effects of Trying to Relax Under Stress 403 Learning Sets of Isopods 403 Business: Bidding Behavior 405 Computer Addendum 406 Chapter Summary 409 Study Suggestions 409 Chapter 16 Nonparametric Analysis of Variance and Related Statistics ................ 413 Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics 414 Assumption of Normality 415 Homogeneity of Variance 416 Continuity and Equal Intervals of Measures 416 Independence of Observations 417 Nonparametric Analysis of Variance 418 One-Way Analysis of Variance: The Kruskal-Wallis Test 418 Two-Way Analysis of Variance: The Friedman Test 420 The Coefficient of Concordance, W 423 Properties of Nonparametric Methods 424 Computer Addendum 425 The Kruskal-Wallis Test on SPSS 425 The Friedman Test on SPSS 430 Chapter Summary 431 Study Suggestions 431 C O N T E N T S xvii Part Six Chapter 17 Designs of Research ........................................................................................ 435 Ethical Considerations in Conducting Behavioral Science Research .. 437 Fiction and Reality 437 A Beginning? 439 Some General Guidelines 442 Guidelines from the American Psychological Association 443 General Considerations 443 The Participant at Minimal Risk 443 Fairness, Responsibility, and Informed Consent 444 Deception 444 Debriefing 444 Freedom from Coercion 445 Protection of Participants 445 Confidentiality 445 Ethics of Animal Research 446 Chapter Summary 447 Study Suggestions 448 Chapter 18 Research Design: Purpose and Principles .............................................. 449 Purposes of Research Design 450 An Example 451 A Stronger Design 452 Research Designs as Variance Control 455 A Controversial Example 456 Maximization of Experimental Variance 459 Control of Extraneous Variables 460 Minimization of Error Variance 462 Chapter Summary 463 Study Suggestions 464 Chapter 19 Inadequate Designs and Design Criteria .................................................... 465 Experimental and Nonexperimental Approaches 466 Symbolism and Definitions 467 Faulty Designs 468 Measurement, History, Maturation 470 The Regression Effect 470 Criteria of Research Design 472 Answer Research Questions? 472 Control of Extraneous Independent Variables 473 Generalizability 474 Internal and External Validity 475 Chapter Summary 478 Study Suggestions 479 xviii CONTENTS Chapter 20 General Designs of Research ................................................................... 481 Conceptual Foundations of Research Design 482 A Preliminary Note: Experimental Designs and Analysis of Variance 484 The Designs 485 The Notion of the Control Group and Extensions of Design 20.1 486 Matching versus Randomization 489 Matching by Equating Participants 490 The Frequency Distribution Matching Method 491 Matching by Holding Variables Constant 492 Matching by Incorporating the Nuisance Variable Into the Research Design 492 Participant as Own Control 493 Additional Design Extensions: Design 20.3 Using a Pretest 493 Difference Scores 495 Chapter Summary 499 Study Suggestions 500 Chapter 21 Research Design Applications: Randomized Groups and Correlated Groups ..................................................................................... 501 Simple Randomized Subjects Design 502 A Research Example 502 Dolinski and Nawrat: Fear-then-Relief and Compliance 502 Factorial Designs 504 Factorial Designs with More than Two Variables 505 Research Examples of Factorial Designs 505 Sigall and Ostrove: Attractiveness and Crime 506 Quilici and Mayer: Examples, Schema and Learning 506 Example 1 507 Example 2 507 Example 3 507 Example 4 507 Hoyt: Teacher Knowledge and Pupil Achievement 508 Evaluation of Randomized Subjects Designs 510 Correlated Groups 511 The General Paradigm 512 Units 513 One Group Repeated Trials Design 513 Two groups, Experimental Group-Control Group Designs 514 Research Examples of Correlated Group Designs 515 Miller and DiCara: Learning of Autonomic Functions 516 Tipper, Eissenberg, and Weaver: Effects of Practice on Selective Attention 518 Multigroup Correlated Groups Designs 519 Units Variance 519 Factorial Correlated Groups 520 Suedfeld and Rank: Revolutionary Leaders and Conceptual Complexity 521 Perrine, Lisle, and Tucker: Offer of Help and Willingness to Seek Support 522 CONTENTS xix Analysis of Covariance 523 Clark and Walberg: Massive Reinforcement and Reading Achievement 524 Research Design and Analysis: Concluding Remarks 525 Computer Addendum 526 Chapter Summary 528 Study Suggestions 529 Part Seven Chapter 22 Types of Research ...................................................................................... 533 Quasi-Experimental and N = 1 Designs of Research ............................ 535 Compromise Designs a.k.a. Quasi Experimental Designs 536 Nonequivalent Control Group Design 536 No-Treatment Control Group Design 537 Research Examples 543 Nelson, Hall, and Walsh-Bowers: Nonequivalent Control Group Design 543 Chapman and McCauley: Quasi-Experiment 543 Time Designs 544 Multiple Time Series Design 546 Single Subject Experimental Designs 546 Some Advantages of Doing Single-Subject Studies 548 Some Disadvantages of Using Single-Subject Designs 549 Some Single-Subject Research Paradigms 550 The Stable Baseline: An Important Goal 550 Designs that Use the Withdrawal of Treatment 550 The ABA Design 550 Repeating Treatments (ABAB Designs) 551 A Research Example 552 Powell and Nelson: Example of an ABAB Design 552 Using Multiple Baselines 553 Chapter Summary 554 Study Suggestions 555 Chapter 23 Nonexperimental Research ....................................................................... 557 Definition 558 Basic Difference Between Experimental and Nonexperimental Research 558 Self-Selection and Nonexperimental Research 560 Large-Scale Nonexperimental Research 561 Determinants of School Achievement 562 Response Style Differences between East Asian and North American Students 563 Smaller Scale Nonexperimental Research 564 Cochran and Mays: Sex, Lies, and HIV 564 Elbert: Impaired Reading and Written Language in Attention Deficit Children 565 Testing Alternative Hypotheses 566 Evaluation of Nonexperimental Research 568 The Limitations of Nonexperimental Interpretation 568 The Value of Nonexperimental Research 569 XX CONTENTS Conclusions 570 Chapter Summary 571 Study Suggestions 571 Chapter 24 Laboratory Experiments, Field Experiments, and Field Studies 575 A Laboratory Experiment: Miller Studies of the Learning of Visceral Responses 576 A Field Experiment: Rind and Bordia's Study on the Effects of a Server's "Thank You" and Personalization on Restaurant Tipping 577 A Field Study: Newcomb's Bennington College Study 578 Characteristics and Criteria of Laboratory Experiments, Field Experiments, and Field Studies 579 Strengths and Weaknesses of Laboratory Experiments 579 Purposes of the Laboratory Experiment 581 The Field Experiment 581 Strengths and Weaknesses of Field Studies 582 Field Studies 585 Types of Field Studies 586 Strengths and Weaknesses of Field Studies 586 Qualitative Research 588 Addendum 593 The Holistic Experimental Paradigm 593 Chapter Summary 595 Study Suggestions 596 Chapter 25 Survey Research ....................................................................................... 599 Types of Surveys 601 Interviews and Schedules 601 Other Types of Survey Research 603 The Methodology of Survey Research 604 Checking Survey Data 607 Three Studies 608 Verba and Nie: Political Participation in America 608 Docter and Prince: A Survey of Male Cross-Dressers 609 Sue, Fujino, Hu, Takeuchi, and Zane: Community Health Services for Ethnic Minorities 610 Applications of Survey Research to Education 611 Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research 613 Meta-Analysis 614 Chapter Summary 618 Study Suggestions 619 Part Eight Chapter 26 Measurement 621 Foundations of Measurement 623 Definition of Measurement 625 Measurement and "Reality" Isomorphism 627 CONTENTS xxi Properties, Constructs, and Indicants of Objects 629 Levels of Measurement and Scaling 630 Classification and Enumeration 631 Nominal Measurement 632 Ordinal Measurement 632 Interval Measurement (Scales) 634 Ratio Measurement (Scales) 635 Comparisons of Scales: Practical Considerations and Statistics 635 Chapter Summary 638 Study Suggestions 639 Chapter 27 Reliability ................................................................................................... 641 Definitions of Reliability 642 Theory of Reliability 645 Two Computational Examples 648 The Interpretation of the Reliability Coeficient 652 The Stanadard Error of the Mean and the Standard Error of Measurement 657 The Improvement of Reliability 659 The Value of Reliability 662 Chapter Summary 663 Study Suggestions 664 Chapter 28 Validity.................................................................................................................. 665 Types of Validity 666 Content Validity and Content Validation 667 Criterion-Related Validity and Validation 668 Decision Aspects of Validity 669 Multiple Predictors and Criteria 670 Construct Validity and Construct Validation 670 Convergence and Discriminability 671 A Hypothetical Example of Construct Validation 672 The Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix Method 674 Research Examples of Concurrent Validation 676 Research Examples of Construct Validation 676 A Measure of Anti-Semitism 677 A Measure of Personality 677 The Measurement of Democracy 678 Other Methods of Construct Validation 679 A Variance Definition of Validity: The Variance Relation of Reliability and Validity 680 Statistical Relation between Reliability and Validity 684 The Validity and Reliability of Psychological and Eduational Measurement Instruments 685 Chapter Summary 685 Study Suggestions 686 xxii CONTENTS Part Nine Chapter 29 Methods of Observation and Data Collection ........................................... 689 Interviews and Interview Schedules ....................................................... 691 Interviews and Schedules as Tools of Science 693 The Interview 693 The Interview Schedule 694 Kinds of Schedule Information and Items 694 Fixed-Alternative Items 695 Example 695 Open-Ended Items 695 Example 696 Scale Items 696 Criteria of Question-Writing 697 The Value of Interviews and Interview Schedules 699 The Focus Group and Group Interviewing: Another Interviewing Method 700 Some Examples of Focus Group Research 701 Chapter Summary 702 Study Suggestions 703 Classical Works 703 More Recent Works 703 "Normal" Studies 704 Chapter 30 Objective Tests and Scales ....................................................................... 707 Objectivity and Objective Methods of Observation 708 Tests and Scales: Definitions 709 Types of Objective Measures 709 Intelligence and Aptitude Tests 709 Achievement Tests 710 Personality Measures 711 Attitude Scales 712 Value Scales 715 Types of Objective Scales and Items 716 Examples 716 Agreement-Disagreement Items 717 Rank Order Items and Scales 718 Forced-Choice Items and Scales 719 Ipsative and Normative Measures 721 Choice and Construction of Objective Measures 723 Chapter Summary 724 Study Suggestions 725 Chapter 31 Observations of Behavior and Sociometry ............................................. 727 Problems in Observing Behavior 728 The Observer 728 Validity and Reliability 729 CONTENTS xxiii Categories 731 Units of Behavior 731 Cooperativeness 732 Observer Inference 732 Generality or Applicability 733 Sampling of Behavior 734 Rating Scales 736 Types of Rating Scales 737 Examples 737 Weaknesses of Rating Scales 738 Examples of Observation Systems 739 Time Sampling of Play Behavior of Hearing-Impaired Children 739 Observation and Evaluation of College Teaching 740 Assessment of Behavioral Observation 741 Sociometry 742 Sociometry and Sociometric Choice 742 Example 742 Example 743 Methods of Sociometric Analysis 743 Sociometric Matrices 743 Sociograms or Directed Graphs 745 Sociometric Indices 746 Research Uses of Sociometry 747 Prejudice in Schools 748 Sociometry and Stereotypes 748 Sociometry and Social Status 748 Race, Belief and Sociometric Choice 748 Chapter Summary 749 Study Suggestions 751 Part Ten Chapter 32 Multivariate Approaches 753 Multiple Regression Analysis: Foundations ........................................... 755 Three Research Examples 755 Simple Regression Analysis 757 Multiple Linear Regression 761 An Example 761 The Multiple Correlation Coefficient 768 Tests of Statistical Significance 771 Significance Tests of Individual Regression Weights 773 Interpretation of Multiple Regression Statistics 773 Statistical Significance of the Regression and R2 773 Relative Contributions to Y of the Xs 774 Other Analytic and Interpretative Problems 777 Research Examples 780 DDT and Bald Eagles 780 xxiv CONTENTS Inflation Bias in Self-Assessment Examinations 781 Multiple Regression Analysis and Scientific Research 782 Chapter Summary 783 Study Suggestions 784 Chapter 33 Multiple Regression, Analysis of Variance, and Other Multivariate Methods ............................................................. 787 One-Way Analysis of Variance and Multiple Regression Analysis 788 Coding and Data Analysis 792 Factorial Analyis of Variance, Analysis of Covariance, and Related Analyses 795 Analysis of Covariance 796 Discriminant Analysis, Canonical Correlation, Multivariate Analysis of Variance, and Path Analysis 799 Discriminant Analysis 799 Canonical Correlation 800 Research Examples 802 Multivariate Analysis of Variance 802 Path Analysis 803 Ridge Regression, Logistic Regression, and Log-linear Analysis 805 Ridge Regression 805 The Problem with Ordinary-Least-Squares (OLS) 806 Research Example 808 Logistic Regression 808 A Research Example 810 Multiway Contingency Tables and Log-Linear Analysis 811 Research Example 816 Multivariate Analysis and Behavioral Research 817 Chapter Summary 818 Study Suggestions 820 Chapter 34 Factor Analysis 825 Foundations 826 A Brief History 826 A Hypothetical Example 827 Factor Matrices and Factor Loadings 829 Some Factor Theory 831 Graphical Representation of Factors and Factor Loadings 833 Extraction and Rotation of Factors, Factor Scores, and Second-Order Factor Analysis 834 The Communality and Number of Factors Problems 835 The Principal Factor Method 836 Rotation and Simple Structure 839 Second-Order Factor Analysis 844 Factor Scores 845 Research Examples 846 CONTENTS XXV The Comrey Personality Scales 846 Thurstone Factorial Study of Intelligence 847 Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 847 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 849 Research Example Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis 851 Factor Analysis and Scientific Research 854 Chapter Summary 857 Study Suggestions 858 Chapter 35 Analysis of Covariance Structures .......................................................... 863 Covariance Structures, Latent Variables, and Testing Theory 864 Testing Alternative Factor Hypotheses: Duality Versus Bipolarity of Social Attitudes 868 Latent Variable Influences: The Full Eqs System 876 Setting Up the EQS Structure 878 Research Studies 880 Verba and Nie: Political Participation in America 881 Brecht, Dracup, Moser, and Riegel: Relationship of Marital Quality and Psychosocial Adjustment 882 Conclusions--and Reservations 884 Chapter Summary 887 Study Suggestions 888 Appendix A ..................................................................................................................................A l Appendix B ................................................................................................................................ B 1 References .................................................................................................................................. R I Name Index ............................................................................................................................. NI-1 Subject Index ........................................................................................................................... SI- I

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