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The Conduct of inquiry: methodology for behavioral science

Author: Kaplan, Abraham Publisher: Transaction Publishers, 1998.Language: EnglishDescription: 428 p. ; 23 cm.ISBN: 0765804484Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print H61 .K37 1998
(Browse shelf)
001230899
Available 001230899
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

The Conduct of Inquiry Methodology for Behavioral Science Contents Introduction to the Transaction Edition Preface Introduction I. METHODOLOGY 1. Logic-in- Use and Reconstructed Logic Scientific Autonomy Autonomy and Logic 2. Logic and Psychology Justification Discovery 3. The Task of Methodology Techniques Honorifics Epistemology Methods in Methodology The Myth of Methodology . 4. "Scientific Method" in Behavioral Science Techniques Schools Dilemmas The Generality of Science The Speciality of Behavioral Science xv xix xxi 3 3 6 12 12 13 18 19 19 20 23 24 27 28 29 30 30 32 viii II. CONCEPTS 5. The Empirical Basis Semantic and Epistemic Empiricism Logical Positivism Operationism Pragmatism 6. Functions of Concepts Terms Conceptions Classifications Concepts and Theories 7. Theoretical Terms Reference to Direct Observations Reference to Indirect Observations Reference to Observables Reference to Theory The Empirical-Theoretical Continuum The Functions of Terms 8. Openness of Meaning Systemic Openness Vagueness Internal Vagueness Dynamic Openness Premature Closure 9. Specification of Meaning Definition Indication and Reduction Precision and Reliability The Progress of Specification 10. Concepts in Behavioral Science The Locus Problem Collective Terms Ideal Types ///. LAWS 11. Functions of Laws Identifications Contents 34 36 36 39 42 46 47 48 50 52 54 54 5S 55 56 57 60 62 63 65 67 68 70 71 72 73 76 77 78 78 80 82 84 85 CO N TEN TS 1X Suppositions and Presuppositions Resources Assumptions and Hypotheses Facts and Laws 12. The Content of Laws Field, Range, Scope, and Content Exceptions and Quasi Laws Trend, Tendency, and Approximation Meaning Priority 13. Types of Laws Form Content Use 14. Laws in Behavioral Science Desirability Possibility Free Will Determinism Methodological Determinism IV. EXPERIMENT 15. The Process of Observation Inters ubj ecti vity Error What is Observed 16. Observation in Behavioral Science Interaction Levels of Interpretation Introspection and Identification 17. Functions of Experiment What Experiments Can Do Kinds of Experiment 18. The Structure of Experiment Generalization Yield Factors 86 87 88 89 94 94 96 97 100 103 104 105 109 113 115 115 116 121 121 124 126 127 128 131 136 136 139 141 144 144 147 155 155 157 158 x The Conceptual Frame 19. Experiment in Behavioral Science Manipulations Verbal Experiments Social Experiments Field and Laboratory Significance V. MEASUREMENT 20. Functions of Measurement Quantity and Quality What Measurement Permits The Use of Mathematical Techniques 21. The Structure of Measurement Mapping the Data Orders Additive Measurement Standards Fundamental and Derived Measurement 22. Scales Scales of Intensive Measurement Scales of Extensive Measurement 23. Validity Errors The "True" Measure and the Significant Figure 24. Measurement in Behavioral Science Quality and Quantity What is Not Measured The Power of Measurement Incommensurables Judges The Quantitative Idiom The Dilemma VI. STATISTICS 25. Functions of Statistics Unities Uncertainties Contents 159 161 161 163 164 165 169 171 172 173 175 177 177 178 184 186 187 189 191 196 198 199 202 206 206 208 209 210 211 212 213 215 216 217 CONTENTS Xi Quality of Knowledge 26. Probability and Induction Calculus of Probability Theories of Probability Inductive Inference 27. Statistical Description Central Tendency Dispersion 28. Statistical Hypotheses Sampling Plans Hypotheses Tests and Errors Correlation 29. Statistics in Behavioral Science Utilities Criteria Values Objections VII. MODELS 30. The Structure of Models Cognitive Style Models and Theories Analogy and Metaphor Kinds of Models 31. Functions of Models Data Organization Cognitive Styles Kinds of Models 32. Shortcomings of Models Overemphasis on Symbols Overemphasis on Form Oversimplification Overemphasis on Rigor Map Reading Pictorial Realism 33. Models in Behavioral Science Artificial Languages 219 221 221 225 232 234 235 238 239 239 244 246 249 250 250 253 254 255 258 259 263 265 266 268 268 269 273 275 277 278 280 283 284 285 288 288 xii Contents Empiricism Kinds of Models VIII. THEORIES 34. Theories and Laws Theory, Practice, Fact, and Laws Types of Theories 35. Functions of Theories Theories in Process Realism and Instrumentalism 36. Validation of Theories Norms of Correspondence Norms of Coherence Pragmatic Norms 37. Theories in Behavioral Science Biases Interaction of Factors IX. EXPLANATION 38. The Pattern Model Description, Interpretation, and Explanation Pattern and Deduction. Objectivity The Cognitive Map 39. The Deductive Model Deduction and Pattern. Generality and Speciality Law and Theory Deducibility Confirmation 40. Explanation and Prediction Explanation without Prediction Prediction without Explanation Differences between Explanation and Prediction 41. Functions of Explanation Openness in Explanations 290 291 294 295 298 302 302 306 311 312 314 319 322 322 325 327 327 332 335 336 336 336 338 341 343 345 346 346 349 349 351 351 CONTENTS xiii Technological Function Instrumental Function Heuristic Function 42. Explanation in Behavioral Science Meaning and Interpretation Purpose, Function, and Motivation Historical Explanation X. VALUES 43. Values in Inquiry The Contention about Values Bias Values as Subject-Matter Values in the Ethics of the Profession Values in the Selection of Problems Values and Meanings Values and Facts Objectivity and Values 44. Theory of Value Grounds Contexts Objective Relativism Means and Ends The Role of Values 45. Behavioral Science and Policy Antiscientific Aspects of Policy Extrascientific Aspects of Policy Unscientific Aspects of Policy Planning Scientism 46. The Future of Behavioral Science References Index of Names Index of Subjects 356 356 357 358 358 363 367 370 370 373 377 379 381 382 384 387 387 387 390 392 393 396 398 398 399 401 403 405 406 411 417 420

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