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Biofuels for transport: global potential and implications for sustainable energy and agriculture

Corporate author: Worldwatch Institute Publisher: Earthscan, 2007.Language: EnglishDescription: 452 p. : Graphs/Ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9781844074228Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index List(s) this item appears in: SDG Week 2021
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HC2000 .E6 B56 2007
(Browse shelf)
Available 001230303
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index


Biofuels for Transport Global potential and implications for sustainable energy and agriculture Contents List of Figures, Tables and Boxes Acknowledgements Preface Note to Readers List of Acronyms and Abbreviations PART I STATUS AND GLOBAL TRENDS 1 Current Status of the Biofuel Industry and Markets A global overview History of biofuel production programmes Current biofuel production World petroleum use and implications for biofuels Recent developments in the biofuel industry 2 Liquid Biofuels: A Primer Introduction Carbohydrate-derived biofuels Lipid-derived biofuels Production costs for biofuels 3 First-Generation Feedstocks Introduction Relative feedstock yields Sugar crops Starch crops Oilseed crops Other potential oil sources for biodiesel Potential and limitations of current feedstocks Conclusion xi xiv xvii xxi xxii 3 3 3 6 8 9 13 13 13 17 20 23 23 23 25 28 30 33 36 39 PART II NEW TECHNOLOGIES, CROPS AND PROSPECTS 4 Next-Generation Feedstocks Introduction Basic characteristics of cellulosic biomass Biomass residues and organic wastes Increasing cellulose yields from grain and/or oilseed crops Double-cropping approaches Energy crops Habitat and mono-crop issues Conclusion 5 New Technologies for Converting Biomass into Liquid Fuels Introduction Basic conversion technology options Converting lignocellulosic fibres and wastes into liquid fuels Emerging developments in conversion technology `Mature' applications of cellulosic conversion technologies The biorefinery concept Near-term prospects for cellulosic liquid fuels Conclusion 6 Long-Term Biofuel Production Potentials Introduction Bioenergy in the world energy mix Biomass residues and organic wastes Energy crops and land availability Global scenarios for biomass production Competing uses for biomass Conclusion PART III KEY ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES 7 Economic and Energy Security Introduction Rising demand for liquid fuels The biofuels alternative Subsidies Biofuels and the agricultural market The economic promise of next-generation biofuels Increasing efficiency and demand-reduction strategies Conclusion 101 101 101 106 110 112 114 115 117 45 45 46 48 54 55 55 58 59 60 60 60 63 67 73 74 76 76 78 78 78 82 85 90 94 96 8 Implications for Agriculture and Rural Development Introduction Expanding markets for agricultural products Creating agricultural employment Substituting for agricultural subsidies Biofuel processing: Adding value to agricultural harvests Biofuels for local use Industry concentration and the distribution of profits Food versus fuel Conclusion 9 International Trade in Biofuels Introduction Current biofuel trade Competitive advantage and the biofuels trade Policies affecting international biofuel trade Social and environmental issues and the biofuel trade Risks and opportunities for market development Technical and logistical risks of biofuel trade Consistent fuel standards for the international biofuel trade Conclusion PART W KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 10 Energy Balances of Current and Future Biofuels Introduction Measuring energy performance Analysis of energy inputs Improvements in efficiency and fossil energy balance Conclusion 11 Effects on greenhouse gas emissions and climate stability Introduction Biofuels and the global climate Life-cycle impacts of current-generation biofuels Reducing the climate impact Trade-offs Conclusion 12 Environmental Impacts of Feedstock Production Introduction Environmental costs of oil exploration and extraction Biofuel feedstock production and land-use changes 120 120 120 123 126 128 129 131 135 136 138 138 138 141 142 149 149 150 152 154 159 159 159 163 166 168 169 169 170 177 183 188 192 194 194 194 196 Effects on soil quality Water use and pollution Air quality and atmosphere Conclusion 13 Environmental Impacts of Processing, Transport and Use Introduction Environmental costs of petroleum refining and use Biofuel impacts: Refining Biofuel transport and storage Biofuel combustion Conclusion PART V MARKET INTRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES 14 Infrastructure Requirements Introduction Centralized versus distributed production Investment requirements for feedstock transport and processing Investment requirements for biofuel transport, storage and delivery International transport considerations Conclusion 15 Vehicle and Engine Technologies Introduction Ethanol Biodiesel Other biofuels Biofuels and advanced propulsion systems Conclusion 16 Transfer of Technology and Expertise Introduction The technology change and transfer process Biofuel technology change and transfer Development of a national biofuels strategy Role of government and the private sector in biofuel technology transfer Large-scale biofuels technological change and transfer: The case of Proálcool Conclusion 204 207 211 211 215 215 215 218 222 224 230 235 235 235 236 241 247 249 250 250 250 256 258 261 262 263 263 263 264 265 267 269 274 PART VI THE POLICY FRAMEWORK 17 Biofuel Policies around the World Introduction Regional, national and local policies Policy lessons to date and remaining barriers Relevant international policy instruments and initiatives Relevant international environmental instruments Conclusion 18 Standards and Certification Schemes Introduction The need for sustainability standards and certification Relevant standards and certification schemes Implications of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Policy Framework for Biofuel Certification: International trade and equity Key observations on biofuel standards and certification Outstanding issues to be addressed Conclusion PART VII RECOMMENDATIONS 19 Recommendations for Decision-Makers Introduction Developing the biofuel market National and international research, development and demonstration Incentives for rapid deployment of advanced low-impact biofuels and technologies Infrastructure development Optimizing ecological impacts Maximizing rural development benefits Encouraging sustainable trade in biofuels Key overarching recommendations PART VIII COUNTRY STUDIES 20 Biofuels for Transportation in China 21 Biofuels for Transportation in India 22 Biofuels for Transportation in Tanzania 23 Biofuels for Transportation in Brazil 329 333 336 340 311 311 312 314 317 318 319 321 322 325 279 279 280 287 290 292 294 296 296 297 297 302 305 305 307 24 Biofuels for Transportation in Germany Appendix 1 Per Capita Consumption of Gasoline and Diesel, 2002 Appendix 2 World Producers of Petroleum and Biofuels Appendix 3 Biofuels as a Percentage of Gasoline and Diesel Consumption Appendix 4 Block Diagram of Ethanol + F-T Fuels + GTCC Appendix 5 Overview of Key Elements and Correlations Determining Bioenergy Potential Appendix 6 Flow Chart of Bioenergy System Compared with Fossil Reference Energy System Appendix 7 Selected Standards and Certification Schemes Relevant to Biofuel Production and Trade Glossary of Terms Notes References Index 344 351 352 354 355 356 357 358 362 371 407 444

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