Normal view MARC view

Relationships: a dialectical perspective

Author: Hinde, Robert A. Publisher: Psychology Press, 1997.Language: EnglishDescription: 586 p. : Graphs/Ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0863777066Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HM132 .H56 1997
(Browse shelf)
001230766
Available 001230766
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Relationships: A Dialectical Perspective Contents Acknowledgements Frontispiece Preface PART A PROLEGOMENA 1. From Everyday Behaviour towards a Science of Relationships Individual behaviour 3 Interactions 6 Relationships 9 The social group 10 2. Obstacles to a Science of Interpersonal Relationships Prejudices from outside science 14 Problems from within science 15 General issues 15 Methodological problems 16 Summary 22 3. The Self, Interactions, and Relationships The self-system 23 Storage of information 24 Concepts of the self and other 25 xiv xv xvii 3 13 23 Age changes and differences in the self-concept 26 Gender differences 26 Situational effects 27 Stability of the self-concept 28 The self-concept and relationships 30 Theories of the self-system 31 Interactions 36 Relationships 37 Definitional issues--behavioural aspects 37 Communication in relationships 38 Relationships as accounts or narratives 39 Generalising about relationships 40 Social behaviour versus social relationships 40 The social context 42 Dialectical relations between levels 42 Two models of relationships 44 Summary 48 PART B CHARACTERISTICS OF RELATIONSHIPS B1. DESCRIBING RELATIONSHIPS 4. Problems of Description The need for description 51 Description is necessarily incomplete 52 Description and explanation 54 Particular relationships or generalisations? 54 Guidelines for selection 55 Dimensions and levels of analysis 55 The concepts of "Closeness" and "Intimacy" 57 Categories of dimensions 61 Classifying relationships 62 Summary 65 B2. THE CONSTITUENT INTERACTIONS 5. Content and Diversity of Interactions The content of interactions 69 The diversity of interactions 73 Summary 74 6. Qualities of Interactions and Communication Verbal and non-verbal communication 77 The problem of assessment: the communication of quality 81 Intensity 81 Content and presentation of verbal material 81 69 51 77 Non-vocal communication and emotion 86 Relations between the behaviour of the two participants 90 Tensions in communication: deception 91 Qualities of interactions and of relationships 93 Communication in long-term relationships 94 Quality of communication and of the relationship 94 Summary 97 7. Relative Frequency and Patterning of Interactions Clusters of co-varying properties 99 Ratio and derived measures 100 Relations between heterologous interactions 100 Patterning of interactions 103 Summary 107 B3. GIVE AND TAKE IN RELATIONSHIPS 8. Similarity versus Difference: Similarity/Reciprocity Reciprocity versus complementarity 111 Similarity/reciprocity 115 Similarity as a factor in close relationships 115 Methodology: two important techniques 117 Why is similarity attractive? 123 Is similarity always attractive? 134 Summary 135 9. Similarity versus Difference: Difference/Complementarity Complementarity in close relationships 137 Some aspects of social support 143 Complexity in the balance between reciprocity and complementarity 147 Acceptance of the pattern of complementarity by the partners 149 Summary 151 10. Conflict and Power: Conflict Nature and assessment 153 The ubiquity of conflict 153 Constructive and destructive conflict 154 The assessment of conflict 156 Some sources of conflict 156 Predisposing factors 160 Situational and personality factors 160 Jealousy 163 Conflict tactics 168 Attitudes to conflict 168 111 99 137 153 Attributional processes 169 Behaviour in conflict situations 171 Conflict and the stage of the relationship 185 Conflict and closeness 187 Violence 188 Summary 189 11. Conflict and Power: Power Power and control 191 Types of power 192 Power and the resources exchanged 195 Power in close relationships 196 Power tactics 198 Non-verbal concomitants of power 199 The usefulness of the concept of power 199 Summary 200 B4. CLOSENESS 12. Self-Disclosure and Privacy Self-disclosure as an individual or relationship characteristic 204 Assessment of self-disclosure 204 Benefits and costs: privacy 207 Disclosure, vulnerability, and trust 211 Characteristics of self-disclosers 212 The nature of the relationship 216 Third parties 217 Physical self-disclosure 217 Summary 218 13. Interpersonal Perception, Accounts, and the Perception of Relationships Interpersonal perception and its assessment 219 Assessing interpersonal perception 220 Factors affecting interpersonal perception 224 On acquaintance 224 Differences in behaviour by the person perceived 225 Differences between and influences on judges 227 Congruency of dimensions 227 Cultural stereotypes 228 Self-perception and other-perception 228 Relevance to self 228 Similarity 229 Relevance to significant others 229 Pragmatic implications 229 Influence of first encounter: polarisation 229 203 191 219 Context 230 Judges' sensitivity: masculinitylfemininity 231 Mood 232 Simultaneous cognitive operations 232 Mutuality 232 Length of acquaintance 233 Misperception 233 Interpersonal perception in on-going relationships 234 Perceived similarity and understanding 234 Interpersonal perception and empathy 235 Misperception 236 Accounts 236 Personal construct analysis and the perception of relationships 238 Summary 241 14. Satisfaction Measurement and related problems 244 Consistency 247 Factors affecting satisfaction 249 Introduction 249 Personal characteristics 250 Properties of the relationship 255 Extra-relationship factors 265 Conceptual models of the bases of satisfaction 265 Summary 266 15. Commitment Definition 269 Commitment and autonomy 273 Determinants of commitment 273 Commitment in unsatisfying relationships 273 Belief in the partner's commitment 274 Individual characteristics and commitment 276 Summary 276 PART C FURTHER PRINCIPLES FOR UNDERSTANDING RELATIONSHIP PROGRESS 16. Individual Characteristics Introduction 281 Personality and traits 282 The influence of relationships on individual characteristics 283 The influence of individual characteristics on relationships 285 Adaptability 288 Summary 288 281 243 269 17. Social and Other Extra-Dyadic Influences Influences from the physical environment 291 Relationships affect relationships 292 The dyad as a unit within a group 298 The social network 298 Socio-cultural influences 301 Cultural influences on emotion and psychological functioning 301 Roles 303 Roles and rules: non-obligatory rights and duties 306 Temporal changes in roles and rules 310 Overlapping categories 311 Cultural and social influences in the development of particular relationships 312 Norms of behaviour in the development of relationships 314 General 314 Role conflict 315 How do social forces affect the individual? 315 Summary 316 18. Dissonance, Balance, and Attribution Dissonance and balance 319 Attribution 324 Factors influencing attribution 325 Attributions in relationships 327 Beyond attribution 328 Summary 331 19. Exchange, Interdependence, Equity, and Investment Theories Definitions 334 Homans 335 Thibaut and Kelley: interdependence theory 337 Equity theory 344 The investment model 348 General issues 351 The problem of measurement 351 Justice, or what is fair? 353 Why does fairness matter? 360 Nature of distress 361 Interpersonal perception and exchange theories 362 Interdependence and the content of interactions 362 Altruism and intimate relationships 363 Exchange theories of the dyad and the surrounding group 365 Conclusion 365 Summary 366 291 319 333 20. The Categorisation of Resources Reinforcement in learning theory and real-life rewards 369 The classification of resources 371 Commentary 380 Summary 384 21. Attachment Theory Attachment in childhood 385 Adult attachment 388 Summary 395 22. Negative and Positive Feedback Introduction 397 Negative feedback 398 Positive feedback 400 When liking leads to liking 401 Self-disclosure, reciprocity, and liking 403 Summary 406 PART D FRIENDSHIP AND LOVE 23. Friends (and Enemies) What is friendship? 409 Assessment of friendship quality 412 Gender differences in friendship 414 Cross-sex friendships 416 Cultural variations 418 Factors conducive to friendship 418 Age changes 420 Friendship at work 421 Friends and the social group 421 The fragility of friendship 421 The persistence of friendship 422 Enemies 423 Summary 424 24. Love and Romantic Relationships What is love? 428 Assessment of love 431 Trait or state? 435 Individual characteristics and beliefs about love 435 Cultural differences 439 Passionate love in young children 441 The Romeo and Juliet effect 441 Is there a negative side to love? 442 Summary 443 369 385 397 409 427 PART E RELATIONSHIP CHANGE 25. Aquaintance Introduction 447 Physical attractiveness 448 Selection 449 Non-conscious processes in selection 453 First judgements 454 Acquaintanceship 455 Interactional skills 457 Summary 459 26. The Development of Relationships The growth of unconscious commitment 461 Cognitive exploration 462 Physical signals 463 Identification with the partner 464 Trust 466 Comparison with outsiders 466 Early stages predict later ones 467 Creating an account 467 Taboo topics 468 The miniculture 469 Monogamous commitment 470 The social network 470 The public pledge 471 Conflict in developing relationships 473 Rate of development 475 Summary 476 27. Maintenance Stability and change 477 Maintenance processes inherent in a positive relationship 480 Attribution 481 Maintenance strategies and behaviours 482 Continuity of unhappy relationships 485 Summary 485 28. The Decline and Dissolution of Relationships Phases of decline 487 Aspects of breakdown 491 Attribution and accounts 491 Communication 492 The social context of dissolution 493 Cultural determinants in dissolution 494 Factors making for a decline 495 447 461 477 487 Predisposing personal factors 495 External factors 495 Change in a participant 496 Changes in the relationship 496 Cultural norms 496 Internal factors 496 The decline of friendship 497 The decline of romantic relationships 497 Unrequited love 500 The breakdown of marital relationships 501 Predictors of breakdown 501 A model of breakdown 504 Distress 505 Accounts 506 Social factors 507 Summary 507 29. A Programme for Integration The current state 509 Agreement over variables 511 Integration of explanations 512 Models of processes 513 Integration through dialectics 514 References Author Index Subject Index 509 521 569 581

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