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Product design and development

Author: Ulrich, Karl T. ; Eppinger, Steven D.Publisher: McGraw-Hill, 2008. ; Irwin, 2008.Edition: 4th international ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 368 p. : Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9780071259477Type of document: BookNote: Doriot: for 2013-2014 coursesBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Asia Campus
Textbook Collection
Print HD31 .U47 2008
(Browse shelf)
900181396
Consultation only 900181396
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HD31 .U47 2008
(Browse shelf)
001214976
Consultation only 001214976
Book (short loan) Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HD31 .U47 2008
(Browse shelf)
001214984
Available 001214984
Book Middle East Campus
Textbook Collection
Print HD31 .U47 2008
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500008957
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Doriot: for 2013-2014 courses

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Product Design and Development Contents Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Characteristics of Successful Product Development 2 Who Designs and Develops Products? 3 Duration and Cost of Product Development 5 The Challenges of Product Development 6 Approach of This Book 6 Structured Methods 7 Industrial Examples 7 Organizational Realities 7 Roadmap of the Book 8 Organizational Links May Be Aligned with Functions, Projects, or Both 25 Choosing an Organizational Structure 26 The AMF Organization 28 Summary 30 References and Bibliography 30 Exercises 31 Thought Questions 32 Chapter 3 Product Planning 33 The Product Planning Process 34 Four Types of Product Development Projects 35 The Process 36 References and Bibliography 10 Exercises 10 Thought Question 10 Step 1: Identify Opportunities 37 Step 2: Evaluate and Prioritize Projects 38 Competitive Strategy 38 Market Segmentation 39 Technological Trajectories 40 Product Platform Planning 40 Evaluating Fundamentally New Product Opportunities 42 Balancing the Portfolio 43 Chapter 2 Development Processes and Organizations 11 A Generic Development Process 12 Concept Development: The Front-End Process 16 Adapting the Generic Product Development Process 18 Technology-Push Products 18 Platform Products 20 Process-Intensive Products 20 Customized Products 20 High-Risk Products 20 Quick-Build Products 21 Complex Systems 21 Step 3: Allocate Resources and Plan Timing 43 Resource Allocation 44 Project Timing 45 The Product Plan 45 Step 4: Complete Pre-Project Planning 45 Mission Statements 47 Assumptions and Constraints 48 Staffing and Other Pre-Project Planning Activities 49 Product Development Process Flows 22 The AMF Development Process 22 Product Development Organizations 23 Organizations Are Formed by Establishing Links among Individuals 23 Step 5: Reflect on the Results and the Process 49 Summary 50 References and Bibliography 50 Exercises 52 Thought Questions 52 Chapter 4 Identifying Customer Needs 53 Step 1: Gather Raw Data from Customers 56 Choosing Customers 58 The Art of Eliciting Customer Needs Data 59 Documenting Interactions with Customers 60 Chapter 6 Concept Generation 97 The Activity of Concept Generation 98 Structured Approaches Reduce the Likelihood of Costly Problems 99 A Five-Step Method 99 Step 2: Interpret Raw Data in Terms of Customer Needs 61 Step 3: Organize the Needs into a Hierarchy 63 Step 4: Establish the Relative Importance of the Needs 66 Step 5: Reflect on the Results and the Process 67 Summary 68 References and Bibliography 68 Exercises 69 Thought Questions 70 Step 1: Clarify the Problem 100 Decompose a Complex Problem into Simpler Subproblems 101 Focus Initial Efforts on the Critical Subproblems 103 Step 2: Search Externally 104 Interview Lead Users 104 Consult Experts 105 Search Patents 105 Search Published Literature 106 Benchmark Related Products 107 Step 3: Search Internally 107 Chapter 5 Product Specifications 71 What Are Specifications? 72 When Are Specifications Established? 73 Establishing Target Specifications 74 Step 1: Prepare the List of Metrics 75 Step 2: Collect Competitive Benchmarking Information 79 Step 3: Set Ideal and Marginally Acceptable Target Values 79 Step 4: Reflect on the Results and the Process 83 Both Individual and Group Sessions Can Be Useful 108 Hints for Generating Solution Concepts 109 Step 4: Explore Systematically 110 Concept Classification Tree 112 Concept Combination Table 114 Managing the Exploration Process 117 Setting the Final Specifications 83 Step 1: Develop Technical Models of the Product 85 Step 2: Develop a Cost Model of the Product 86 Step 3: Refine the Specifications, Making Trade-Offs Where Necessary 88 Step 4: Flow Down the Specifications as Appropriate 89 Step 5: Reflect on the Results and the Process 91 Step 5: Reflect on the Solutions and the Process 119 Summary 120 References and Bibliography 121 Exercises 122 Thought Questions 122 Chapter 7 Concept Selection 123 Concept Selection Is an Integral Part of the Product Development Process 124 All Teams Use Some Method for Choosing a Concept 125 A Structured Method Offers Several Benefits 128 Overview of Methodology 129 Concept Screening 130 Step 1: Prepare the Selection Matrix 130 Step 2: Rate the Concepts 131 Step 3: Rank the Concepts 132 Summary 91 References and Bibliography 92 Exercises 93 Thought Questions 93 Appendix Target Costing 94 Step 4: Combine and Improve the Concepts 132 Step 5: Select One or More Concepts 132 Step 6: Reflect on the Results and the Process 133 Implications of the Architecture 167 Product Change 167 Product Variety 168 Component Standardization 169 Product Performance 169 Manufacturability 170 Product Development Management 171 Concept Scoring 134 Step 1: Prepare the Selection Matrix 134 Step 2: Rate the Concepts 135 Step 3: Rank the Concepts 136 Step 4: Combine and Improve the Concepts 136 Step 5: Select One or More Concepts 136 Step 6: Reflect on the Results and the Process 137 Establishing the Architecture 171 Step 1: Create a Schematic of the Product 172 Step 2: Cluster the Elements of the Schematic 173 Step 3: Create a Rough Geometric Layout 175 Step 4: Identify the Fundamental and Incidental Interactions 176 Caveats 137 Summary 139 References and Bibliography 139 Exercises 140 Thought Questions 141 Appendix A Concept-Screening Matrix Example 142 Appendix B Concept-Scoring Matrix Example 143 Delayed Differentiation 177 Platform Planning 180 Differentiation Plan 180 Commonality Plan 181 Managing the Trade-Off between Differentiation and Commonality 182 Chapter 8 Concept Testing 145 Step 1: Define the Purpose of the Concept Test 147 Step 2: Choose a Survey Population 147 Step 3: Choose a Survey Format 148 Step 4: Communicate the Concept 149 Matching the Survey Format with the Means of Communicating the Concept 153 Issues in Communicating the Concept 153 Related System-Level Design Issues 182 Defining Secondary Systems 183 Establishing the Architecture of the Chunks 183 Creating Detached Interface Specifications 184 Summary 184 References and Bibliography 185 Exercises 186 Thought Questions 186 Chapter 10 Industrial Design 187 What Is Industrial Design? 189 Assessing the Need for Industrial Design 191 Expenditures for Industrial Design 191 How Important Is Industrial Design to a Product? 191 Ergonomic Needs 192 Aesthetic Needs 193 Step 5: Measure Customer Response 155 Step 6: Interpret the Results 155 Step 7: Reflect on the Results and the Process 158 Summary 159 References and Bibliography 159 Exercises 160 Thought Questions 160 Appendix Estimating Market Sizes 161 Chapter 9 The Impact of Industrial Design 193 Is Industrial Design Worth the Investment? 193 How Does Industrial Design Establish a Corporate Identity? 196 Product Architecture 163 What Is Product Architecture? 164 Types of Modularity 166 When Is the Product Architecture Defined? 167 The Industrial Design Process 197 1. Investigation of Customer Needs 197 2. Conceptualization 197 3. Preliminary Refinement 198 4. Further Refinement and Final Concept Selection 198 5. Control Drawings or Models 200 6. Coordination with Engineering, Manufacturing, and External Vendors 200 The Impact of Computer-Based Tools on the ID Process 200 Step 3: Reduce the Costs of Assembly 223 Keeping Score 224 Integrate Parts 224 Maximize Ease ofAssembly 225 Consider Customer Assembly 226 Step 4: Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production 226 Minimize Systemic Complexity 227 Error Proofing 227 Management of the Industrial Design Process 201 Timing of Industrial Design Involvement 202 Assessing the Quality of Industrial Design 204 1. Quality of the User Interface 204 2. Emotional Appeal 204 3. Ability to Maintain and Repair the Product 204 4. Appropriate Use of Resources 206 5. Product Differentiation 206 Step 5: Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors 228 The Impact of DFM on Development Time 228 The Impact of DFM on Development Cost 228 The Impact of DFM on Product Quality 229 The Impact of DFM on External Factors 229 Summary 206 References and Bibliography 207 Exercises 208 Thought Questions 208 Chapter 11 Design for Manufacturing 209 Design for Manufacturing Defined 211 DFM Requires a Cross-Functional Team 211 DFM Is Performed throughout the Development Process 211 Overview of the DFM Process 212 Step 1: Estimate the Manufacturing Costs 212 Fixed Costs versus Variable Costs 215 The Bill of Materials 215 Estimating the Costs of Standard Components 216 Estimating the Costs of Custom Components 217 Estimating the Cost ofAssembly 218 Estimating the Overhead Costs 219 Results 229 Summary 231 References and Bibliography 232 Exercises 233 Thought Questions 234 Appendix A Materials Costs 235 Appendix B Component Manufacturing Costs 236 Appendix C Assembly Costs 242 Appendix D Cost Structures 243 Chapter 12 Prototyping 245 Understanding Prototypes 247 Types of Prototypes 247 What Are Prototypes Used For? 250 Step 2: Reduce the Costs of Components 220 Understand the Process Constraints and Cost Drivers 220 Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps 221 Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the Part Process 221 Standardize Components and Processes 222 Adhere to "Black Box" Component Procurement 223 Principles of Prototyping 253 Analytical Prototypes Are Generally More Flexible than Physical Prototypes 253 Physical Prototypes Are Required to Detect Unanticipated Phenomena 253 A Prototype May Reduce the Risk of Costly Iterations 254 A Prototype May Expedite Other Development Steps 256 A Prototype May Restructure Task Dependencies 257 Prototyping Technologies 257 3D CAD Modeling and Analysis 257 Free-Form Fabrication 258 Chapter 14 Patents and Intellectual Property 287 What Is Intellectual Property? 288 Overview of Patents 289 Utility Patents 290 Preparing a Disclosure 290 Planning for Prototypes 259 Step 1: Define the Purpose of the Prototype 259 Step 2: Establish the Level ofApproximation of the Prototype 260 Step 3: Outline an Experimental Plan 260 Step 4: Create a Schedule for Procurement, Construction, and Testing 260 Planning Milestone Prototypes 261 Step 1: Formulate a Strategy and Plan 292 Timing of Patent Applications 292 Type ofApplication 293 Scope ofApplication 294 Summary 262 References and Bibliography 263 Exercises 264 Thought Questions 264 Step 2: Study Prior Inventions 294 Step 3: Outline Claims 295 Step 4: Write the Description of the Invention 296 Figures 297 Writing the Detailed Description 297 Defensive Disclosure 298 Step 5: Refine Claims 299 Writing the Claims 299 Guidelines for Crafting Claims 302 Chapter 13 Robust Design 267 What Is Robust Design? 268 Design of Experiments 270 The Robust Design Process 271 Step 1: Identify Control Factors, Noise Factors, and Performance Metrics 271 Step 2: Formulate an Objective Function 272 Step 3: Develop the Experimental Plan 273 Experimental Designs 273 Testing Noise Factors 275 Step 6: Pursue Application 302 Step 7: Reflect on the Results and the Process 304 Summary 304 References and Bibliography 305 Exercises 305 Thought Questions 305 Appendix A Trademarks 306 Appendix B Advice to Individual Inventors 306 Step 4: Run the Experiment 277 Step 5: Conduct the Analysis 277 Computing the Objective Function 277 Computing Factor Effects by Analysis of Means 278 Chapter 15 Product Development Economics 309 Elements of Economic Analysis 310 Quantitative Analysis 310 Qualitative Analysis 310 When Should Economic Analysis Be Performed? 311 Economic Analysis Process 312 Step 6: Select and Confirm Factor Setpoints 279 Step 7: Reflect and Repeat 279 Caveats 280 Summary 280 References and Bibliography 281 Exercises 282 Thought Questions 282 Appendix Orthogonal Arrays 283 Step 1: Build a Base-Case Financial Model 312 Estimate the Timing and Magnitude of Future Cash Inflows and Outflows 312 Compute the Net Present Value of the Cash Flows 314 The Base-Case Financial Model Can Support Go/No-Go Decisions and Major Investment Decisions 315 Chapter 16 Managing Projects 333 Understanding and Representing Tasks 334 Sequential, Parallel, and Coupled Tasks 334 The Design Structure Matrix 336 Gantt Charts 337 PERT Charts 338 The Critical Path 338 Baseline Project Planning 339 The Contract Book 339 Project Task List 339 Team Staffing and Organization 341 Project Schedule 342 Project Budget 343 Project Risk Plan 343 Modifying the Baseline Plan 344 Step 2: Perform Sensitivity Analysis 315 Development Cost Example 316 Development Time Example 317 Step 3: Use Sensitivity Analysis to Understand Project Trade-Offs 318 Six Potential Interactions 318 Trade-Off Rules 320 Limitations of Quantitative Analysis 321 Step 4: Consider the Influence of the Qualitative Factors on Project Success 322 Projects Interact with the Firm, the Market, and the Macro Environment 322 Carrying Out Qualitative Analysis 324 Summary 325 References and Bibliography 326 Exercises 327 Thought Questions 327 Appendix A Time Value of Money and the Net Present Value Technique 327 Appendix B Modeling Uncertain Cash Flows Using Net Present Value Analysis 330 Accelerating Projects 345 Project Execution 348 Coordination Mechanisms 348 Assessing Project Status 351 Corrective Actions 351 Postmortem Project Evaluation 352 Summary 353 References and Bibliography 354 Exercises 356 Thought Questions 356 Appendix Design Structure Matrix Example 356 Index 359

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