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Evolutionary psychology: the new science of the mind

Author: Buss, David M. Publisher: Pearson , 2008. ; Allyn and Bacon, 2008.Edition: 3rd ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 477 p. : Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9780205483389Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print BF711 .B87 2008
(Browse shelf)
001229149
Available 001229149
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind Contents Preface xv Part One Foundations of Evolutionary Psychology 1 1 2 The Scientific Movements Leading to Evolutionary Psychology Landmarks in the History of Evolutionary Thinking 3 Evolution before Darwin 3 Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection 4 Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection 6 The Role of Natural and Sexual Selection in Evolutionary Theory The Modern Synthesis: Genes and Particulate Inheritance 10 The Ethology Movement 11 The Inclusive Fitness Revolution 13 Clarifying Adaptation and Natural Selection 14 Trivers's Seminal Theories 16 The Sociobiology Controversy 17 8 Common Misunderstandings about Evolutionary Theory Misunderstanding 1: Human Behavior Is Genetically Determined Misunderstanding 2: If It's Evolutionary, We Can't Change It 18 Misunderstanding 3: Current Mechanisms Are Optimally Designed 18 18 19 Milestones in the Origins of Modern Humans Landmarks in the Field of Psychology 24 20 Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory 24 BOX 1.1 Out of Africa versus Multiregional Origins: The Origins of Modern Humans William James and the Psychology of Instincts 27 The Rise of Behaviorism 28 The Astonishing Discoveries of Cultural Variability 28 The Garcia Effect, Prepared Fears, and the Decline of Radical Behaviorism Peering into the Black Box: The Cognitive Revolution 31 Summary 33 35 Suggested Readings 25 29 2 The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology The Origins of Human Nature 37 36 37 Three Theories of the Origins of Complex Adaptive Mechanisms The Three Products of Evolution 3 9 Levels of Evolutionary Analysis in Evolutionary Psychology 42 The Core of Human Nature: Fundamentals of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 49 All Species Have a Nature 49 Definition of an Evolved Psychological Mechanism 50 Important Properties of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms Learning, Culture, and Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 53 58 Methods for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses Comparing Different Species 60 Comparing Males and Females 60 Comparing Individuals within a Species 61 Comparing the Same Individuals in Different Contexts Experimental Methods 62 59 61 Sources of Data for Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses Archeological Records 63 Data from Hunter-Gatherer Societies 63 Observations 63 Self-Reports 64 Life-History Data and Public Records 64 Human Products 65 Transcending the Limitations of Single Data Sources 63 65 Identifying Adaptive Problems 66 Guidance from Modern Evolutionary Theory 66 Guidance from Knowledge of Universal Human Structures 66 Guidance from Traditional Societies 67 Guidance from Paleoarcheology and Paleoanthropology 67 Guidance from Current Mechanisms 67 Guidance from Task Analysis 67 Organization of Adaptive Problems 68 Summary 68 70 Suggested Readings Part Two Problems of Survival 71 3 Combating the Hostile Forces of Nature: Human Survival Problems 72 Food Acquisition and Selection 73 Food Selection in Rats 74 Food Selection in Humans 74 Why Humans Like Spices: The Antimicrobial Hypothesis 76 Why Humans Like to Drink Alcohol: An Evolutionary Hangover? Sickness in Pregnant Women: The Embryo Protection Hypothesis The Hunting Hypothesis 80 The Gathering Hypothesis 84 77 78 Comparing the Hunting and Gathering Hypotheses 85 The Scavenging Hypothesis 86 Adaptations to Gathering and Hunting: Sex Differences in Specific Spatial Abilities Finding a Place to Live: Shelter and Landscape Preferences 89 87 The Savanna Hypothesis 90 Combating Predators and Other Environmental Dangers: Fears, Phobias, Anxieties, and "Evolutionary Memories" 92 Most Common Human Fears 94 97 BOX 3.1 The Adaptive Conservatism Hypothesis of Fears Children's Antipredator Adaptations 97 Darwinian Medicine: Combating Disease Why Do People Die? 99 The Theory of Senescence The Puzzle of Suicide 101 Summary 103 104 Suggested Readings 100 98 Part Three Challenges of Sex and Mating 4 Women's Long-Term Mating Strategies 105 106 107 Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Mate Preferences Parental Investment and Sexual Selection 107 Mate Preferences as Evolved Psychological Mechanisms 108 The Content of Women's Mate Preferences 109 Preference for Economic Resources 110 Preference for Good Financial Prospects 111 Preference for High Social Status 115 Preference for Somewhat Older Men 117 Preference for Ambition and Industriousness 118 Preference for Dependability and Stability 119 Preference for Athletic Prowess 120 Preference for Good Health and Physical Appearance 122 Love and Commitment 124 Preference for Willingness to Invest in Children 126 Preference for Similarity 127 Additional Mate Preferences: Humor, Incest Avoidance, and Voice Context Effects on Women's Mate Preferences 129 Effects of Women's Personal Resources on Mate Preferences 129 Effects of Temporal Context on Women's Mate Preferences 130 Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Mate Preferences 131 Effects of Women's Mate Value on Mate Preferences 132 How Women's Mate Preferences Affect Actual Mating Behavior Women's Responses to Men's Personal Ads 133 128 133 Women's Marriages to Men High in Occupational Status 134 Women's Marriages to Men Who Are Older 134 Effects of Women's Preferences on Men's Behavior 135 Summary 136 137 BOX 4.1 What about Lesbian Sexual Orientation? Suggested Readings 138 5 Men's Long-Term Mating Strategies 139 139 Theoretical Background for the Evolution of Men's Mate Preferences Why Men Might Benefit from Commitment and Marriage 139 The Problem of Assessing a Woman's Fertility or Reproductive Value The Content of Men's Mate Preferences 142 Preference for Youth 142 Evolved Standards of Physical Beauty 146 Preference for Body Fat and the Critical Waist-to-Hip Ratio 150 Sex Differences in the Importance of Physical Appearance 152 Do Men Have a Preference for Ovulating Women? 154 Solutions to the Problem of Paternity Uncertainty 156 BOX 5 1 Homosexual Orientation 159 140 Context Effects on Men's Mating Behavior 160 Men in Positions of Power 160 Context Effects from Viewing Attractive Models 162 Testosterone and Men's Mating Strategies 163 The Necessities and Luxuries of Mate Preferences 163 Effect of Men's Preferences on Actual Mating Behavior 165 Men's Responses to Women's Personal Ads 165 Age Preferences and Marital Decisions 165 Effect of Men's Mate Preferences on Women's Competition Tactics 167 Summary 168 Suggested Readings 169 6 Short-Term Sexual Strategies Theories of Men's Short-Term Mating 171 171 172 172 173 Adaptive Benefits for Men of Short-Term Mating Potential Costs of Short-Term Mating for Men BOX 6.7 Functions versus Beneficial Effects of Short-Term Mating Adaptive Problems Men Must Solve When Pursuing Short-Term Mating Evidence for an Evolved Short-Term Mating Psychology Physiological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 175 Psychological Evidence for Short-Term Mating 176 Behavioral Evidence of Short-Term Mating 182 175 173 Women's Short-Term Mating 183 185 Evidence for Women's Short-Term Mating 183 Hypotheses about the Adaptive Benefits to Women of Short-Term Mating Costs to Women of Short-Term Mating 187 Empirical Tests of Hypothesized Benefits to Women 188 Context Effects on Short-Term Mating 192 Individual Differences in Short-Term Mating 192 Other Contexts Likely to Affect Short-Term Mating 193 Summary 195 Suggested Readings 196 Part Four Challenges of Parenting and Kinship197 7 Problems of Parenting 198 200 Why Do Mothers Provide More Parental Care Than Fathers? The Paternity Uncertainty Hypothesis 200 The Mating Opportunity Cost Hypothesis 201 An Evolutionary Perspective on Parental Care 202 212 217 Genetic Relatedness to Offspring 203 Offspring's Ability to Convert Parental Care into Reproductive Success Alternative Uses of Resources Available for Investment in Children The Theory of Parent--Offspring Conflict 223 Mother--Offspring Conflict in Utero 224 The Oedipal Complex Revisited 225 BOX 77 Killing Parents and the Asymmetry of Valuing Parents and Children 227 Summary 228 229 Suggested Readings 8 Problems of Kinship 230 231 Theory and Implications of Inclusive Fitness Hamilton's Rule 231 Theoretical Implications of Hamilton's Rule 232 Empirical Findings that Support the Implications of Inclusive Fitness Theory 235 Alarm Calling in Ground Squirrels 236 Kin Recognition and Kin Classifications in Humans 237 Patterns of Helping in the Lives of Los Angeles Women 238 Life-or-Death Helping among Humans 239 Genetic Relatedness and Emotional Closeness: Is Blood Thicker Than Water? Vigilance over Kin's Romantic Relationships 241 Kinship and Stress 241 240 Kinship and Survival 243 Patterns of Inheritance--Who Leaves Wealth to Whom? 243 Investment by Grandparents 246 A Broader Perspective on the Evolution of the Family 250 BOX 8.1 Investment by Aunts, Uncles, and Cousins 251 The Dark Side of Families 256 Summary 258 260 Suggested Readings Part Five Problems of Group Living 9 Cooperative Alliances The Evolution of Cooperation The Problem of Altruism 264 A Theory of Reciprocal Altruism 263 264 264 265 268 Tit for Tat 266 BOX 9.1 Strategies for Promoting Cooperation Cooperation among Nonhumans Food Sharing in Vampire Bats Chimpanzee Politics 269 Cooperation among Humans 269 270 268 Social Contract Theory 270 The Detection of Prospective Altruists 2 7 6 The Psychology of Friendship 277 Costs and Benefits of Friendship 283 Cooperative Coalitions 285 Summary 288 290 Suggested Readings 10 Aggression and Warfare 291 292 Aggression as a Solution to Adaptive Problems Coopt the Resources of Others 292 Defend against Attack 293 Inflict Costs on Intrasexual Rivals 294 Negotiate Status and Power Hierarchies 294 Deter Rivals from Future Aggression 295 Deter Long-Term Mates from Sexual Infidelity 295 The Context-Specificity of Aggression 295 Why Are Men More Violently Aggressive Than Women? 296 299 Empirical Evidence for Distinct Adaptive Patterns of Aggression Evidence for Sex Differences in Same-Sex Aggression 299 Contexts Triggering Men's Aggression against Men 304 Contexts Triggering Women's Aggression against Women 305 Contexts Triggering Men's Aggression against Women 306 Contexts Triggering Women's Aggression against Men 307 Warfare 308 BOX 7 0 7 Yanomamö Warfare 309 Do Humans Have Evolved Homicide Mechanisms? Summary 320 321 Suggested Readings 316 11 Conflict between the Sexes Strategic Interference Theory Conflict over Sexual Access 325 322 323 325 329 Conflict about the Occurrence and Timing of Sex Sexual Aggression and Evolved Defenses against Sexual Aggression Sexual Harassment 329 Sexual Aggressiveness 330 Do Men Have Evolved Rape Adaptations? 331 Individual Differences in Sexual Aggression: The Mate Deprivation Hypothesis Do Women Have Evolved Antirape Adaptations? 334 332 Jealous Conflict 335 336 Sex Differences in Jealousy From Vigilance to Violence: Tactics of Mate Retention Sex Differences in the Use of Mate-Retention Tactics 342 Contexts Influencing the Intensity of Mate-Retention Tactics Violence toward Partners 347 342 344 Conflict over Access to Resources 349 Causes of Resource Inequality: Women's Mate Preferences and Men's Competitive Tactics 350 BOX 777 Are All Men United to Control Women? Summary 352 354 351 Suggested Readings 12 Status, Prestige, and Social Dominance The Emergence of Dominance Hierarchies Dominance and Status in Nonhuman Animals 356 355 357 359 360 Evolutionary Theories of Dominance, Prestige, and Status An Evolutionary Theory of Sex Differences in Status Striving Dominance Theory 366 Social Attention-Holding Theory 368 Determinants of Dominance 370 BOX 12.1 Facial Dominance 373 376 Self-Esteem as a Status-Tracking Mechanism Strategies of Submissiveness 377 Summary 380 Suggested Readings 382 Part Six An Integrated Psychological Science 73 Toward a Unified Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Cognitive Psychology 385 383 384 Attention and Memory 387 Problem Solving: Heuristics, Biases, and Judgment under Uncertainty The Evolution of Language 393 The Evolution of Extraordinary Human Intelligence 396 Evolutionary Social Psychology 398 Capitalizing on Evolutionary Theories about Social Phenomena The Evolution of Moral Emotions 4 0 0 The Return of Group Selection as Multilevel Selection Theory Evolutionary Developmental Psychology Theory of Mind Mechanisms 404 Attachment and Life-History Strategies Evolutionary Personality Psychology 405 407 408 403 399 402 388 Alternative Niche Picking or Strategic Specialization Adaptive Assessment of Heritable Qualities 409 Frequency-Dependent Adaptive Strategies 410 Evolutionary Clinical Psychology 412 Causes of Mechanism Failure 413 Evolutionary Insights into Problems Erroneously Thought to Be Dysfunctions Evolutionary Cultural Psychology 416 Evoked Culture 417 Transmitted Culture 419 The Evolution of Art, Fiction, Movies, and Music Toward a Unified Psychology 422 414 420 Suggested Readings Bibliography Index 463 425 423

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