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Safe drinking water: lessons from recent outbreaks in affluent nations

Author: Hrudey, Steve E. ; Hrudey, Elizabeth J.Publisher: IWA Publishing, 2004.Language: EnglishDescription: 486 p. : Graphs/Ill./Maps/Photos ; 24 cm.ISBN: 1843390426Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print TD430 .H78 2004
(Browse shelf)
001229024
Available 001229024
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Safe Drinking Water Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations Contents Dedication Foreword Preface Acknowledgements List of abbreviations 1 INTRODUCTION 2 CAUSES OF WATERBORNE DISEASE OUTBREAKS 2.1 Historical background 2.2 Major classes of waterborne pathogens 2.2.1 Viruses 2.2.2 Bacteria 2.3.3 Protozoa 2.3 Specific pathogens relevant to outbreak case studies 2.3.1 Hepatitis A virus 2.3.2 Norovirus (Norwalk virus) 2.3.3 Rotavirus 2.3.4 Campylobacter 2.3.5 Escherichia coli (enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli) 2.3.6 Salmonella xi xiii xvi xix xxi 1 6 6 20 21 22 24 25 25 27 29 30 32 34 2.3.7 Shigella 2.3.8 Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis, G. duodenalis) 2.3.9 Cryptosporidium parvum 2.3.10 Toxoplasma gondii 2.4 Indicator and surrogate organisms 2.5 Summary of pathogens 3 CAPABILITIES OF WATER SAFETY BARRIERS 36 37 38 41 42 45 50 3.1 Introduction to water quality 3.2 Source water protection 3.3 Conventional water treatment processes 3.3.1 Coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation (clarification) 3.3.2 Filtration 3.3.3 Disinfection: chlorination 3.4 Advanced water treatment processes 3.4.1 Membrane filtration 3.4.2 Ozonation 3.4.3 Ultraviolet radiation disinfection 3.4.4 Other processes 3.5 Water distribution and storage 3.6 Risk management for safe drinking water 4 WATERBORNE OUTBREAK CASE STUDIES 51 55 56 57 62 67 73 74 75 75 76 76 78 81 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Walkerton, Ontario, Canada 4.2.1 Scope of the outbreak 4.2.2 The Walkerton drinking water system 4.2.3 The outbreak experience in May 2000 Box 4.1 Key players in the course of the Walkerton outbreak Box 4.2 Timeline of major events in Walkerton for May 2000 4.2.4 Direct causes of the outbreak 4.2.5 Commentary 4.3 Outbreaks in the 1970s 4.3.1 Overview 4.3.2 Richmond Heights, Florida, U.S.A., January--March 1974 4.3.3 Rome, New York, U.S.A., November 1974--June 1975 4.3.4 Crater Lake, Oregon, U.S.A., June--July 1975 4.3.5 Camas, Washington, U.S.A., April--May 1976 4.3.6 Berlin, New Hampshire, U.S.A., March--May 1977 4.3.7 Bennington, Vermont, U.S.A., May--June 1978 4.3.8 Bradford, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., July--December 1979 81 95 95 96 97 98 108 110 118 123 123 125 128 130 132 134 137 139 4.4 Outbreaks in the 1980s 142 4.4.1 Overview 142 4.4.2 Georgetown, Texas, U.S.A., June 1980 142 4.4.3 Red Lodge, Montana, U.S.A., June­August 1980 144 4.4.4 Bramham, Yorkshire, England, July 1980 147 4.4.5 Rome, Georgia, U.S.A., August 1980 150 4.4.6 Grums and Vålberg, Vårmland, Sweden, October 1980 152 4.4.7 Eagle-Vail, Colorado, U.S.A., March 1981 155 4.4.8 Mjövik (Karlskrona), Blekinge, Sweden, October 1982 158 4.4.9 Drumheller, Alberta, Canada, February 1983 161 4.4.10 Greenville, Florida, U.S.A., May 1983 165 4.4.11 Braun Station, Texas, U.S.A., May­July 1984 168 4.4.12 Alsvåg, Norway, June­July 1984 170 4.4.13 Orangeville, Ontario, Canada, April 1985 172 4.4.14 Pittsfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A., November 1985­ January 1986174 4.4.15 Penticton, B.C., Canada, June and November 1986 177 4.4.16 Sälen, Dalarna, Sweden, December 20 1986­January 17 1987 181 4.4.17 Carrollton, Georgia, U.S.A., January 1987 183 4.4.18 Sunbury, Diggers Rest and Bulla, Victoria, Australia, October 1987 186 4.4.19 Boden, Sweden, March­April 1988 189 4.4.20 Saltcoats/Stevenston, Ayrshire, Scotland, March­April 1988 191 4.4.21 Skjervøy, Norway July­August 1988 194 4.4.22 Swindon, Oxfordshire and Wiltshire, England, December 1988­ 195 April 1989 4.4.23 Oakcreek Canyon, Sedona, Arizona, U.S.A., April 1989 199 4.5 Outbreaks in the 1990s 202 4.5.1 Overview 202 4.5.2 Cabool, Missouri, U.S.A., December 1989­January 1990 202 4.5.3 Moama, New South Wales, Australia, December 1989­ January 1990 207 4.5.4 Creston / Erickson, B.C., Canada, January­April 1990 210 4.5.5 Nursery School / Kindergarten, Saitama, Japan, October 1990 213 4.5.6 The Isle of Thanet, Kent, England, December 1990­January 1991215 4.5.7 Naas, County Kildare, Ireland, October 1991 217 4.5.8 Ugglelose, Denmark, December 1991­January 1992 220 4.5.9 Jackson County, Oregon, U.S.A., January­June 1992 222 4.5.10 Bradford, West Yorkshire, England, October­December 1992 226 4.5.11 Warrington, Cheshire, England, November 1992­February 1993228 4.5.12 Kitchener­Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, February­May 1993 231 4.5.13 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A., March­April 1993 234 4.5.14 Gideon, Missouri, U.S.A., November­December 1993 248 4.5.15 Noormarkku, Finland, April 1994 253 4.5.16 Temagami, Ontario, Canada, February­May 1994 255 4.5.17 Victoria, B.C., Canada, October 1994--May 1995 258 4.5.18 Village in Fife, Scotland, March 1995 263 4.5.19 Yukon Territory, Canada, June--July 1995 265 4.5.20 South Devon (Torbay and District), England, August-- 268 September 1995 4.5.21 Klarup, North Jutland, Denmark, December 1995--March 1996273 4.5.22 Cranbrook, B.C., Canada, May--June 1996 276 4.5.23 Ogose Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, June 1996 279 4.5.24 Strömsund, Jamtland, Sweden, August--September 1996 282 4.5.25 NW London and W Hertfordshire (North Thames), England, 285 February 1997 4.5.26 Resort Hotel, Bermuda, February 1998 287 4.5.27 Heinävesi, Finland, March 1998 290 4.5.28 Alpine, Wyoming, U.S.A., June--July 1998 292 4.5.29 Brushy Creek, Williamson County, Texas, U.S.A., July 1998 294 4.5.30 La Neuveville, Bern Canton, Switzerland, August 1998 297 4.5.31 Washington County Fair, New York, U.S.A., August-- 300 September 1999 4.6 Outbreaks in the 21st Century 305 4.6.1 Overview 305 4.6.2 Clitheroe, Lancashire, England, March 2000 305 4.6.3 Belfast, Northern Ireland, April--May 2000, August 2000 and 307 February--April 2001 4.6.4 Resort, Gulf of Taranto, Italy, July 2000 312 4.6.5 Asikkala, Finland, August 2000, August 2001 and October-- 314 November 2001 4.6.6 North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada, March--April 2001 316 Box 4.3 Key players in the course of the North Battleford outbreak 319 Box 4.4 Timeline of major events in the North Battleford case study 337 4.6.7 Boarding School, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand, May 2001 341 4.6.8 Camp/Conference Center, Stockholm County, Sweden, 345 May--June 2001 4.6.9 Transtrand, Dalarna, Sweden, February--March 2002 347 4.7 A waterborne outbreak of bad news -- Sydney, Australia 351 4.7.1 Scope of the Sydney water crisis, July--September 1998 351 4.7.2 The Sydney drinking water system 352 4.7.3 Bad news experience 354 Box 4.5 Sydney water crisis timeline 354 Box 4.6 Media reporting of the Sydney water crisis 356 4.7.4 Direct causes of the incident 362 4.7.5 Commentary 367 4.8 A waterborne outbreak by any other name -- Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 4.8.1 Scope of the outbreak, October 1982 -- June 1983 4.8.2 The Edmonton drinking water system 4.8.3 The outbreak experience, October 1982 -- April 1983 Box 4.7 Newspaper coverage of the Edmonton giardiasis outbreak 1982-1984 4.8.4 Direct causes of the outbreak 4.8.5 Commentary 369 369 370 371 374 376 379 5 OVERVIEW AND RECURRENT THEMES 381 5.1 Summaries of outbreaks available in the literature 381 5.1.1 Introduction 381 5.1.2 Recent summaries of waterborne outbreaks in the U.S.A. 382 5.1.3 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks in the U.K. 386 5.1.4 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks in Sweden 387 5.1.5 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks in Finland 388 5.1.6 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks in Canada 389 5.1.7 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks in Japan 391 5.1.8 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks in Switzerland 392 5.1.9 Summaries of drinking waterborne outbreaks -- 392 multiple countries 5.2 Recurring themes 394 5.2.1 Converting hindsight into foresight 394 5.2.2 Pathogens pose the greatest risk to drinking water safety 395 5.2.3 Robust multiple barriers are essential 398 Box 5.1 Strategies for reducing pathogen risk 399 5.2.4 Trouble is preceded by change 406 5.2.5 Operators must be capable and responsive 407 5.2.6 Drinking water professionals (providers, regulators and health 410 officials) must be accountable 5.2.7 Risk management -- making sensible decisions under uncertainty 413 5.2.8 Other recurring themes 418 5.3 Routine microbial safety of drinking water 421 6 OUTBREAK PREVENTION -- SAFE WATER 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Challenges 6.3 Limitations 6.4 Elements of prevention 6.5 Preventive approaches 6.5.1 Insights from expert reviews and inquiries 6.5.2 Drinking water safety programs 424 424 426 427 428 429 429 435 Box 6.1 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles 6.6 The public and safe drinking water 7 CONCLUSIONS 8 REFERENCES INDEX 438 445 447 450 477

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