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Statistics for management and economics

Author: Watson, Collin J. ; Billingsley, Patrick ; Croft, D. James ; Huntsberger, David V.Publisher: Allyn and Bacon, 1993.Edition: 5th ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 1063 p. : Graphs ; 26 cm.ISBN: 0205150365Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Europe Campus
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Print HA29 .W38 1993
(Browse shelf)
001193196
Available 001193196
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Statistics for Management and Economics Contents Preface xix Introduction to Statistics 1 CHAPTER 1 1.1 What Is Statistics? 2 1.2 Types of Problems in Statistics 4 Problems 5 1.3 Data, Data Types, and Data Sources 5 Problems 9 1.4 Introduction to Statistical Graphics 9 Problems 13 1.5 Summary 14 Review Problems 15 Ratio Data Set Questions 17 Credit Data Set Questions 17 Case 1.1: Using Statistical Graphics in Corporate Annual Reports 18 Case 1.2: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Teaching Aids Case 1.3: Making the Decision to Launch the Space Shuttle Challenger 20 References 21 Chapter Supplement 23 1.6 Misuses of Statistics 23 Problems 25 19 Data Distributions 27 CHAPTER 2 2.1 Frequency Distributions 28 Problems 34 2.2 Cumulative Frequency Distributions Problems 36 2.3 Graphic Presentation: Histogram Problems 45 2.4 Graphic Presentation: Ogive 46 Problems 47 35 37 vii viii Contents 2.5 Exploratory Data Analysis: Stem-and-Leaf Graphic Display 48 Problems 51 2.6 Summary 51 Review Problems 52 Ratio Data Set Questions 65 Credit Data Set Questions 66 Case 2.1: Using Histograms to Depict Investment Risks of Stocks and Bonds 67 Case 2.2: Summarizing Age Distributions at Diagnosis for Diseases of the Breast 67 Case 2.3: Evaluating the Distribution of Additional Collections After a Tax Audit 69 References 70 CHAPTER 3 Descriptive Measures 71 3.1 Symbols 72 3.2 Measures of Location 72 3.3 Mean 72 3.4 Weighted Mean 74 3.5 Median 76 3.6 Mode 77 Problems 78 3.7 Measures of Variation 79 3.8 Range 80 3.9 Deviations from the Mean 81 3.10 Population Variance and Standard Deviation 82 3.11 Sample Variance and Standard Deviation 87 Problems 91 3.12 What the Standard Deviation Tells Us 92 Problems 95 3.13 Selecting Measures of Location and Dispersion 96 3.14 Coefficient of Variation 98 Problems 99 3.15 Exploratory Data Analysis with Computers: Descriptive Measures and Box Plots 100 Problems 105 3.16 Summary 107 Review Problems 108 Ratio Data Set Questions 117 Credit Data Set Questions 118 Case 3.1: Analyzing the Fairness of the 1970 Draft Lottery 119 Case 3.2: Exploring COMPUSTAT Data Files 121 References 122 Chapter Supplement 123 3.17 Descriptive Statistics for Grouped Data 123 CHAPTER 4 Probability 131 132 136 4.1 Probability Concepts Problems Contents 4.2 Properties of Probabilities 137 4.3 Computing Probabilities 138 Problems 152 4.4 Probability Tree Diagrams 155 Problems 159 4.5 Bayes' Theorem 160 Problems 164 4.6 Summary 165 Review Problems 166 Ratio Data Set Questions 174 Credit Data Set Questions 174 Case 4.1: Evaluating Cancer Screening Tests 175 Case 4.2: Determining The Risk of AIDS from Donor Blood Transfusions 177 Case 4.3: Misusing Probability in a Court of Law 179 References 180 Chapter Supplement 181 4.7 Counting Principles 181 Problems 187 ix Discrete Probability Distributions 189 CHAPTER 5 5.1 Random Variables 190 5.2 General Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 191 Problems 194 5.3 Expected Values and Variances of Random Variables 195 Problems 198 5.4 Binomial Probability Distributions 199 Problems 210 5.5 Poisson Probability Distributions 211 Problems 214 5.6 Summary 216 Review Problems 217 Ratio Data Set Questions 222 Credit Data Set Questions 223 Case 5.1: Substantiating Employment Discrimination 223 Case 5.2: Winning the Oil Lease Lottery 224 References 226 Chapter Supplement 227 5.7 Hypergeometric Probability Distributions 227 Problems 230 5.8 Expected Values and Variances of Linear Functions and Sets of Random Variables 231 Problems 234 Continuous Probability Distributions 237 CHAPTER 6 6.1 General Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 238 Problems 241 x 6.2 Uniform Probability Distributions 242 Problems 243 6.3 Normal Probability Distributions 244 Problems 254 6.4 Normal Approximation of Binomial Distributions Problems 266 6.5 Summary 268 Review Problems 270 Ratio Data Set Questions 274 Credit Data Set Questions 274 Case 6.1: Investing in Common Stocks 274 Case 6.2: Allocating Natural Gas 275 References 277 Chapter Supplement 279 6.6 Exponential Probability Distributions 279 Problems 281 Contents 255 CHAPTER 7 Sampling Distributions 283 7.1 Sampling and Inference 284 7.2 Expected Values and Variances of Statistics 287 Problems 292 7.3 Sampling from Normal Populations 292 7.4 Standardized Sample Mean 294 Problems 297 7.5 Central Limit Theorem 297 Problems 305 7.6 Summary 307 Review Problems 308 Ratio Data Set Questions 313 Credit Data Set Questions 313 Case 7.1: Sampling Inventory for Last-In­First-Out Valuation 314 Case 7.2: Determining the Probability of Overpayments to Health Care Providers 316 Reference 318 Chapter Supplement 319 7.7 Sampling Distributions of Problems 325 7.8 Sampling Distributions of Problems 328 319 325 CHAPTER 8 Estimation 331 8.1 Estimators 332 Problems 335 8.2 Confidence Intervals for Normal Means: Known Standard Deviation 336 Problems 342 Contents xi 8.3 t Distributions 343 Problems 345 8.4 Confidence Intervals for Normal Means: Unknown Standard Deviation 345 Problems 350 8.5 Estimating Binomial p 353 Problems 355 8.6 Sample Size 356 Problems 362 8.7 Summary 363 Review Problems 364 Ratio Data Set Questions 368 Credit Data Set Questions 369 Case 8.1: Estimating Lifetimes of Consumer Products Case 8.2: Estimating Overpayments on Losses Incurred with Federally Insured Mortgages 370 References 371 Chapter Supplement 373 373 8.8 Confidence Intervals for Problems 378 381 8.9 Confidence Intervals for Problems 382 369 Tests of Hypotheses 383 CHAPTER 9 9.1 Establishing Hypotheses 384 Problems 386 9.2 Testing Hypotheses 386 9.3 Type I and Type II Errors 388 Problems 390 9.4 Steps of Hypothesis Testing 390 9.5 Hypotheses on a Normal Mean 394 Problems 403 9.6 P-Values and Hypothesis Testing 406 9.7 Hypotheses on a Binomial p 408 Problems 411 9.8 Testing the Hypothesis 412 Problems 424 9.9 Testing the Hypothesis 427 Problems 431 9.10 Testing the Hypothesis and F Distributions Problems 437 9.11 Summary 438 Review Problems 441 Ratio Data Set Questions 447 Credit Data Set Questions 448 Case 9.1: Comparing Hypothesis Testing and Court Procedures 448 Case 9.2: Testing the Effectiveness of a Cattle Feeding Program 449 432 xii Contents References 450 Chapter Supplement 451 9.12 Type II Error Probabilities and Power of a Hypothesis Test 451 Problems 456 9.13 Testing the Hypothesis µ1 = µ2 with Paired Data 457 Problems 463 9.14 Groups Versus Pairs 465 Problems 466 CHAPTER 10 Analysis of Variance 469 10.1 Analysis of Variance Concepts and Computations 470 10.2 Testing the Hypothesis of Several Equal Means 474 Problems 478 10.3 Analysis of Variance Computations for Unequal Sample Sizes Problems 482 10.4 Analysis of Variance by Partitioning the Sum of Squares 484 Problems 494 10.5 Multiple Comparisons of Means 497 Problems 502 10.6 Summary 503 Review Problems 504 Ratio Data Set Questions 511 Credit Data Set Questions 511 Case 10.1: Testing the Effectiveness of Contribution-Soliciting Methods 511 References 512 Chapter Supplement 513 10.7 Analysis of Variance and Two-Sample Tests 513 Problems 515 10.8 Introduction to Experimental Designs 516 10.9 Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and a Randomized Complete Block Design 517 Problems 529 10.10 Two-Factor Analysis of Variance and a Factorial Design 533 Problems 550 480 CHAPTER 11 Tests Using Categorical Data 555 11.1 Multinomial Distributions 556 11.2 Hypotheses About the Multinomial Parameters 557 Problems 561 11.3 Contingency Tables 563 Problems 572 11.4 Summary 574 Review Problems 575 Ratio Data Set Questions 579 Credit Data Set Questions 580 Case 11.1: Evaluating the Maldistribution of Health Care Providers 580 Contents xiii References 583 Chapter Supplement 585 11.5 Testing a Binomial Proportion with Chi-Square Problems 586 11.6 Test for Goodness of Fit 586 Problems 589 585 Regression and Correlation 591 CHAPTER 12 12.1 Simple Linear Regression 592 12.2 Finding the Slope and the Intercept of a Regression Line 595 Problems 604 12.3 Partitioning the Sum of Squares in Simple Regression 605 Problems 609 12.4 Standard Error of the Estimate syrx and Coefficient of Determination r 2 609 Problems 613 12.5 Inference and Prediction in Regression Analysis 613 Problems 623 12.6 Correlation 624 Problems 631 12.7 Summary 632 Review Problems 635 Ratio Data Set Questions 647 Credit Data Set Questions 647 Case 12.1: Predicting Catastrophic Failure of the Space Shuttle Challenger 648 Case 12.2: Predicting the Value of Real Estate 650 Case 12.3: Reducing Investment Risk with Portfolio Theory 651 References 653 Chapter Supplement 655 12.8 Residual Analysis 655 Problems 660 Multiple Regression 661 CHAPTER 13 13.1 Multiple Linear Regression 662 13.2 Finding the Coefficients for a Multiple Regression Equation by Using a Computer 663 Problems 668 13.3 Partitioning the Sum of Squares in Multiple Regression 669 Problems 672 13.4 Standard Error of the Estimate and Coefficient of Multiple Determination R2 672 Problems 675 13.5 Statistical Inference and Prediction in Multiple Regression Analysis 675 Problems 683 13.6 Indicator Variables 683 Problems 688 xiv Contents 13.7 Summary 689 Review Problems 691 Ratio Data Set Questions 700 Credit Data Set Questions 701 Case 13.1: Predicting the Margin of Victory in College Football Games 701 Case 13.2: Predicting the Number of Bidders for the Oil Lease Lottery 703 References 705 Chapter Supplement 707 13.8 Residual Analysis, Multicollinearity, and Special Problems in Multiple Regression 707 Problems 710 13.9 Stepwise Multiple Regression 711 Problems 720 13.10 Curvilinear Regression 728 Problems 736 13.11 Testing Several Coefficients of a Multiple Regression Equation Problems 742 13.12 Standardized Regression Coefficients 745 Problems 746 737 CHAPTER 14 Time Series Analysis 7 47 14.1 Time Series 748 Problems 749 14.2 Components of Time Series 750 Problems 752 14.3 Smoothing 752 Problems 756 14.4 Measuring the Components of a Time Series 756 14.5 Trend Analysis 759 Problems 762 14.6 Seasonal Indexes 762 Problems 766 14.7 Finding Seasonal Measures Using Multiple Regression 767 Problems 773 14.8 Cyclical Variation 773 Problems 776 14.9 Using Time Series Results and Forecasting 776 Problems 780 14.10 Summary 780 Review Problems 781 Ratio Data Set Questions 784 Credit Data Set Questions 784 Case 14.1: Adjusting Time Series Data at the Bureau of Labor Statistics 784 References 786 Chapter Supplement 787 14.11 Autocorrelated Errors 787 Problems 791 Contents xv 14.12 Autocorrelation and Autoregressive Models Problems 802 793 Statistical Process Control 805 CHAPTER 15 15.1 Quality Improvement 806 15.2 Process Control 807 Problems 813 15.3 Control Charts 814 Problems 830 15.4 Process Capability 833 Problems 838 15.5 Summary 838 Review Problems 840 Case 15.1: Controlling the Quality of Goods and Services References 846 845 Decision Analysis 849 CHAPTER 16 16.1 Payoff Table 850 16.2 Prior Probabilities 853 Problems 855 16.3 Expected Monetary Value 856 Problems 858 16.4 Decision Trees 858 Problems 862 16.5 Opportunity Loss Table 863 Problems 867 16.6 Expected Value of Perfect Information 868 Problems 871 16.7 Decision Criteria 871 Problems 874 16.8 Utility 875 16.9 Summary 877 Review Problems 877 Credit Data Set Questions 883 Case 16.1: Making Decisions with the Aid of a Computer Case 16.2: Making Capital Investment Decisions 884 References 885 883 Decision Analysis with Sample Information 17.1 Subjective Probabilities 888 Problems 892 17.2 Decision Analysis with Sample Information Problems 899 17.3 When to Sample 900 Problems 900 17.4 Summary 900 887 CHAPTER 17 893 xvi Contents Review Problems 901 Credit Data Set Questions 904 Case 17.1: Making the Decision to Drill for Oil References 905 904 CHAPTER 18 N o n p a r a m e t r i c M e t h o d s 9 0 7 18.1 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test of a Median 908 Problems 913 18.2 Sign Test 915 Problems 918 18.3 Mann--Whitney Test of Two Medians 918 Problems 924 18.4 Spearman's Rank Correlation 925 Problems 929 18.5 Summary 930 Review Problems 930 Ratio Data Set Questions 934 Credit Data Set Questions 934 Case 18.1: Comparing Temperature Rankings for The Space Shuttle Challenger 935 Case 18.2: Comparing Consumer Rankings of Electronic Calculators 938 References 940 Chapter Supplement 941 18.6 Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with Paired Data 941 Problems 942 18.7 Runs Test for Randomness 944 Problems 950 18.8 Kruskal--Wallis Test of k Medians 952 Problems 956 CHAPTER 19 I n d e x N u m b e r s 9 5 9 19.1 Index Numbers 960 19.2 Simple Aggregate Index 961 Problems 963 19.3 Price Indexes with Quantity Weights Problems 968 19.4 Base Period and Quality 969 Problems 970 19.5 Uses of Indexes 970 Problems 972 19.6 Summary 973 Review Problems 974 Credit Data Set Questions 976 Case 19.1: Indexing Consumer Prices Case 19.2: Indexing Producer Prices References 978 964 976 977 Contents xvii Appendix A: Data Sets 979 Appendix B: Summation Notation Appendix C: Tables 993 1019 989 Appendix D: MINITAB Brief Reference 1015 Appendix E: Business MYSTAT Manual with QC Tools Appendix F: Greek Alphabet Index 1055 1037 Appendix G: Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 1039

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