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The Arab human development report 2005: towards the rise of women in the Arab world

Publisher: United Nations, 2005.Language: EnglishDescription: 313 p. : Graphs ; 30 cm.ISBN: 9211261740Type of document: Book Online Access: Click here Note: c.2006Bibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references
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Print HC300 .A73 2006
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Print HC300 .A73 2005
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c.2006

Includes bibliographical references

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Arab Human Development Report 2005 Towards the Rise of Women in the Arab World Contents Foreword by the Administrator, UNDP Foreword by the Regional Director, UNDP Regional Bureau for Arab States III Foreword by the Director General and Chairman, The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development V Foreword by HRH the President of the Arab Gulf Programme for United Nations Development Organizations (AGFUND) VII Report Team IX EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction I. Changes in Human Development since the Launch of AHDR 2004 The Reform Process and Islamic Movements: Reconciling Freedom and Faith The Growth of Activism in Civil Society Giving the Lie to Reform A Wave of Mostly Flawed Elections Worsening Human Rights Violations in the Arab Countries Violations Resulting from Occupation and Armed Domestic Conflicts Violations of Public Liberties and Freedoms of Opinion and Expression Targeting Reformers and Human Rights Activists Unfriendly International and Regional Environments The Issue of Terrorism and its Consequences for Freedom in the Arab World The war on terror The Occupation continues to frustrate human development Progress towards Overcoming Deficits in Human Development II. Towards the Rise of Women in the Arab World: Concepts and Problematic Issues Concepts The Question of the "Internal" and the "External" Despotic authority and the rise of women The undervaluation of women's participation in economic activity The State of Women in the Arab World Acquiring Capabilities: the Denial of Opportunities to Women Health Education The Use of Human Capabilities Economic Activities Arab Women in the Political Sphere Outstanding Achievements of Arab Women Levels of Well Being The Spread of Poverty and the Disempowerment of Women The Impairment of Personal Liberty The Arab Women's Movement: Struggles and Experiences Evaluating Achievements for Women The Societal Context of the State of Women Culture Religious heritage: gender bias in juristic interpretations The Arab Woman in Popular Proverbs Women in Contemporary Arab Thought 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 12 13 13 13 13 14 Towards the Emergence of New Sources of Authority First attempts to restrict gender-biased jurisprudence Women and the media Women in the Arab novel The image of women in the cinema Other forms of cultural production Social Structures Tribalism and Patriarchy The Family and the Status of Women Socialisation and Education Legal Structures Attitudes towards the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Constitutional Conditions Equality in the law 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 Women's political and public rights Parliamentary quota systems for women Incrimination and punishment Personal status laws The lack of codification in some States Nationality Away from Official Law 19 19 20 Awareness of Gender Equality among Arab Legal Practitioners Political Economy Government Institutions and the Liberation or Marginalisation of Arab Women 20 21 21 Arab Civil Society and the Issue of Women Different Political Positions on Women Islamist Positions on Women External Pressures for the Empowerment of Women in Arab Countries A Strategic Vision: Two Wings for the Rise of Women Key Features The First Wing: Societal Reform for the Rise of Women The Second Wing: A Societal Movement Fit to Bring about the Rise of Women 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 1. Eliminating women's legacy of deprivation in health and in knowledge through education Health Ending the denial of education to girls and women 2. Eliminating stubborn obstacles to women's use of their capabilities as they see fit Conclusion PART I CHANGES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE ARAB COUNTRIES SINCE THE LAUNCH OF AHDR 2004 Introduction The Reform Process and Islamic Movements: Reconciling Freedom and Faith Open Season on Reform, but the "Arab Spring" Has yet to Bloom The Accelerating Struggles of Civil Society Giving the Lie to Reform A Wave of Mostly Flawed Elections Summary Worsening Human Rights Violations in the Arab Countries Violations Resulting from Occupation and Armed Domestic Conflicts Violations of Public Liberties and Freedoms of Opinion and Expression 27 27 27 27 29 30 32 32 34 34 34 35 Targeting Reformers and Human Rights Activists Restricting the Rights to Peaceful Assembly and to Organise Unfriendly International and Regional Environments A United States Law to Deter Anti-semitism The Issue of Terrorism and its Consequences for Freedom in the Arab World The war on terror Anti-terrorism laws in the Arab countries Extraordinary courts Illegal procedures Deteriorating conditions for women The absurd war on thought and belief Combating terrorism and respecting human rights The Palestinian Cause Gaza: disengagement does not end occupation The occupation continues to frustrate human development Abuse of personal freedoms and the freedom of movement Escalation of settler violence against Palestinian civilians The Wall appropriates land and impedes development The deterioration of living standards The beginnings of Palestinian reform Exposing the Effects of the Occupation of Iraq The human cost of the occupation: use of prohibited weapons and torture Festering corruption The total cost of the invasion and occupation of Iraq Iraqis want to see the end of the occupation Summary Progress towards Overcoming Deficits in Human Development Broadening the Scope of Freedom Reinforcing and protecting a culture of human rights Purging a long legacy of oppression in Morocco Searching for national reconciliation in Algeria Limited move towards democracy in the UAE Jordan expands popular participation Knowledge Acquisition in Perspective Empowerment of Women Conclusion The Contents of Part Two of the Report PART II TOWARDS THE RISE OF WOMEN IN THE ARAB WORLD FRAME OF REFERENCE CHAPTER ONE CONCEPTS AND PROBLEMATIC ISSUES Concepts, the Historical Course of Discrimination against Women, and Countermeasures Concepts The Rise of Women Enjoyment of human rights Guarantee of equality of opportunity Guarantee of full citizenship rights for women 36 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 51 52 53 53 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 56 Equality with Respect for Difference The Rise of Arab Women and Human Development in the Arab World Are Inseparably and Causally Linked! Means of Combating Discrimination against Women: The Evolution of Concepts of "Women and Development" The Global Level Critical evaluation of the application of "women-and-development" concepts in the Arab region Problematic Issues in the Rise of Women The Question of the "Internal" and the "External" The violation of national sovereignty by external forces casts a shadow on the rise of women Despotic authority and the rise of women The undervaluation of women's participation in economic activity Summary THE STATE OF WOMEN IN THE ARAB WORLD CHAPTER TWO THE ACQUISITION OF HUMAN CAPABILITIES Introduction Obstacles to the Acquisition of Basic Human Capabilities Challenges to Health How women fare on indicators of reproductive health Years of life lost to disease Special health problems Obesity and diabetes Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus Acquiring Knowledge through Education The quantitative spread Enrolment at various educational levels, by gender Pre-school education Primary education Secondary education: academic and vocational Higher education Illiteracy still high among women Girls are the better learners CHAPTER THREE THE USE OF HUMAN CAPABILITIES Introduction Economic Activities Characteristics of Women's Participation in Economic Activities: Selected Issues The Evolution of Women's Participation in the Economy and the Labour Market in Arab Countries Distribution of the Female Labour Force in Primary Economic Sectors Women's Occupational Status Causes of Arab Women's Weak Economic Participation The prevailing male culture Scarcity of jobs Employment and wage discrimination between the sexes High reproductive rates Laws hindering women, including those designed for their "protection" Weak support services Impact of structural adjustment programmes 56 57 59 59 59 61 61 62 64 65 66 67 69 69 69 70 70 70 71 72 72 72 73 73 74 74 76 77 78 80 80 85 85 85 85 88 88 88 88 91 91 91 91 91 92 92 92 Arab Women's Weak Economic Participation Leads to Low Levels of Income Arab Women in the Political Sphere Participation without Diversity Women and the Arab State: Cooperation or Conflict Women in Arab Political Parties Women in the Islamic Movements Women, Restrictions and Party Politics Women's Performance and Creativity in Human Endeavours Outstanding Achievements of Arab Women The first generation Literary creativity Creativity in the arts, with a focus on the cinema Arab women's achievements in the production of knowledge The social sciences The natural and exact sciences The astronomical sciences Athletics Arab women entrepreneurs: a growing economic force in Arab countries Summary CHAPTER FOUR LEVELS OF HUMAN WELL-BEING Introduction Topography of Poverty and Gender Poverty and the Gender of Heads of Household The Spread of Poverty and the Disempowerment of Women The Impairment of Personal Liberty Forms of Violence against Women in the Arab World Honour crimes Domestic violence Female circumcision Violence against women under occupation Women in Marginalised Groups Nomadic and Remote Rural Women Women in Squatter Settlements Female Migrant Workers Conditions of women workers in the domestic service sector Endnote CHAPTER FIVE THE ARAB WOMEN'S MOVEMENT: STRUGGLES AND EXPERIENCES Introduction The Women's Movement and its Role in the Process of Liberation Women's Consciousness of Gender Issues Takes Root after Independence The Political Front The Social Front The Goal-driven Front Evaluating Achievements for Women The Tunisian Experience The Moroccan Experience 92 93 97 98 98 99 100 101 101 101 103 104 106 106 107 108 109 110 111 113 113 113 113 113 113 114 116 116 116 117 118 118 118 120 120 121 122 123 123 123 124 126 126 127 129 132 134 137 Other Arab Experiences Summary THE SOCIETAL CONTEXT OF THE STATE OF WOMEN CHAPTER SIX CULTURE Introduction The Traditional Religious Heritage Promotes and Reinforces the Existing Gender Hierarchy Text and Interpretation Universality and Derivatives: Problems of Interpretation jurisprudence Legislates in Favour of the Higher Status of Men The Arab Woman in Popular Proverbs In Support of Discrimination Attitudes in Proverbs Promoting Discrimination against Women Positive Perceptions of Women Women in Contemporary Arab Thought Towards the Emergence of New Sources of Authority The realisation of difference: the other woman in the mirror of the self The awareness of transformation: first attempts to restrict gender-biased jurisprudence Institutionalisation: towards a new mindset on Arab women's issues Aspects of the New Awareness: Indicators and Paradoxes Women in the Arab Novel In Search of a New Image of Arab Women Images of Women Refracted in the Arab Novel Novels Written by Women: The Beginnings of Individual Consciousness and First Confrontations with the Culture of Inferiority The Image of Arab Women in Films Patterns of Stereotyping Love, Freedom and Violence Women in the Culture of Information The Battle for the Image of Women in Arab Society's Transitional Phase "Fatwas" and the Limitations of Traditional jurisprudence Other Media Messages Unhelpful to the Rise of Women Summary CHAPTER SEVEN SOCIAL STRUCTURES Introduction Traditional Structures: The Enshrining of Male Dominance and Women's First Steps to Escape In the Beginning Was the Agnate The Arab Tribe and Islam Authoritarianism and Tribal Solidarity The Agnate and Women in Contemporary Societies From the Home to Society Rebellion Produces Intermediate Forms of Freedom The Family and the Status of Women The Equivocal Relationship between Men and Women in Arab Societies: Synergy and Conflict Alternative images of fatherhood Socialisation and Education (Curricula and Methods of Pedagogy and Evaluation) Summary 138 139 141 143 143 143 143 143 144 145 147 147 148 148 149 149 149 150 151 152 153 153 154 155 157 157 158 159 159 159 160 161 163 163 163 163 163 165 166 167 168 171 173 174 174 176 178 CHAPTER EIGHT LEGAL STRUCTURES Introduction Attitudes towards the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Constitutional Conditions Women's Political and Public Rights Parliamentary Quota Systems for Women Labour Relations Incrimination and Punishment Personal Status Laws The Lack of Codification in Some Arab States Unified Codification of Personal Status Affairs in Arab States The General Characteristics of Arab Family Law A Comparative View Away from Official Law Nationality Awareness of Gender Equality among Arab Legal Practitioners Summary CHAPTER NINE POLITICAL ECONOMY Introduction The Prevailing Mode of Production, the Level of Economic Performance and their Impact Political Structures Government Institutions and the Liberation or Marginalisation of Arab Women Political Parties and the Issue of Women Quotas for Women in Political Institutions Arab Civil Society and the Issue of Women The role of the media Different Political Positions on Arab Women Islamist Positions on Women The International Context of the Situations of Arab Women External Pressure for the Empowerment of Women in Arab Countries The Role of the International and Regional Organisations Key Accomplishments 1- Establishment of Mechanisms to Empower Women 2- Appearance of Arab Institutions and Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women 3- Intervention, Networking and Coordination 4- Cooperation with Governments and Non-governmental Organisations TOWARDS THE RISE OF WOMEN IN THE ARAB WORLD CHAPTER TEN A STRATEGIC VISION: TWO WINGS FOR THE RISE OF WOMEN Introduction First: Key Features of the Strategic Vision Second: The First Wing: Societal Reform for the Rise of Arab Women Eliminating the Roots of Discrimination against Women in Cultural Constructs 1. The encouragement of independent scholarship (ijtihad) in religious matters to overcome cultural obstacles to the rise of women 2. Upbringing, education and the media; resisting stereotypes of women in order to spread a culture of equality 179 179 179 179 182 182 184 185 188 189 189 190 191 193 195 196 197 200 201 201 201 201 202 202 204 205 206 207 207 208 212 212 213 215 215 216 216 216 217 219 219 219 220 222 222 222 223 Political Reform Legislative reform Combating Poverty in Support of the Rise of Women Confronting Reductions in Women's Personal Freedoms Third: The Second Wing: A Societal Movement Fit to Bring about the Rise of Women in the Arab World Fourth: Priorities in the Programme for the Rise of Arab Women First: Eliminating Women's Legacy of Deprivation in Health and in Knowledge Acquisition through Education Health care Ending the denial of education to girls and women Strategic measures for ending the denial of basic education to girls Improvement of the social context of girls' education Second: Breaking Down Stubborn Obstacles to Women's Use of their Capabilities as they See Fit Conclusion REFERENCES ANNEX I. LIST OF BACKGROUND PAPERS (AUTHOR NAME; PAPER TITLE; NUMBER OF PAGES) ANNEX II. OPINION POLL ON THE RISE OF WOMEN IN THE ARAB WORLD ANNEX III. DOCUMENTS ANNEX IV. STATISTICAL TABLES ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE ARAB STATES ANNEX V. PARTICIPANTS IN THE YOUTH CONSULTATION LIST OF BOXES PART ONE I-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 Judges' Club Commission Concludes: "The Will of the Electorate Misrepresented" The Gaza Withdrawal Is the Formaldehyde to Freeze the Peace Process The Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights: Gaza is still occupied land Life at a Checkpoint, Israeli Eyewitnesses Disfigurement of the "Kingdom of Heaven" 224 224 225 226 226 228 228 228 228 229 230 230 231 233 245 249 273 287 313 33 42 43 44 45 57 57 58 61 62 63 69 71 73 81 82 82 87 90 93 94 97 106 114 PART TWO 1-1 Inequality between the Sexes through History 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 4-1 Qasim Amin: The Advancement of Women Is a Step towards Civilisation Excerpts from the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Excerpts from United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) Haifa Zangana: Iraqi Women and the Discourse of the American Occupation Arab Public Opinion in Four Arab Countries Bespeaks Strong Support for the Rise of Arab Women Fowziyah Abu-Khalid: Images of Arab Women in the Mirror of Reality The Millennium Development Goals The Cairo Declaration of Religious Leaders in the Arab States in Response to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 13 December 2004 Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Gender Equality and Education Girls Perform Better in Basic Education in Bahrain The Superior Performance of Girls in Primary Education in Kuwait Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Gender Equality and Employment Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Women's Ownership of Assets and Management of Projects Young People's Opinions on Women's Issues in the Arab Region Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Women in Politics Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Women's Performance as Leaders An Arab woman joins France's "Club of Immortals" Kemal Dervis: On the Occasion of the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women (25 November 2005) 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 5 -1 5-2 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 7 -1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 10-1 Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Physical and Mental Abuse of Women WHO: Women Find No Shelter from Violence at Home Discrimination against Women under Occupation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Asian Female Domestic "Servants" Subjected to Physical Abuse Women's Rights: Political Struggle versus the Constitution Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Attitudes towards Polygamy Fahmi Howeidy: Equality Is at the Heart of Islam Muhammad 'Abdu: On Polygamy Abd al-Hadi Bu Talib: The Jurisprudence of Facilitation Sheikh Muhammad Al-Ghazali: Departing from Religious Teachings on Women Freedom Is a Woman Nazira Zayn al-Din: Time, Freedom and Liberation Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Marriage of First-degree Relatives Su'ad Joseph: Patriarchy and Development in the Arab world Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Wearing the Hijab Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Co-education and Mixing of the Sexes The Self-reliance of Bedouin Women A Father Supportive of His Daughter Mohamad Mandi Al-Jawahiri: Teach Her! Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Attitudes towards CEDAW Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Women's Right to Travel on their Own Al-Tahir al-Haddad: Women in the Judiciary Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Women's Right to Choose their Spouses Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Women's Right to Initiate Divorce and Take Custody of Children Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Children's Right to Acquire their Mother's Nationality Social Propriety Prevents the Appointment of Women Judges Lest Women Take All the Seats in Parliament Shaykh Muhammad Mandi Shams al-Din: No Objection to Women's Holding High Office `Abd al-Halim Abu Shaqqa: Women's Right to Vote and to Stand for Election Heba Raouf Ezzat: The Development of Islamist Discourse on the Subject of Women The Role of United Nations Agencies and Regional Organisations in Supporting the Empowerment of Women Public Opinion on Aspects of the Rise of Arab Women, Four Arab Countries, 2005 - Arab Women in an Arab Renaissance 115 116 118 122 129 136 144 146 147 149 150 151 164 167 169 170 171 175 176 183 186 187 190 192 196 199 200 209 209 211 214 220 LIST OF FIGURES 2-1 2-2 2-4 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births), 2000, and percentage of births attended by skilled personnel, latest year available during the period 1993-2003 Expectation of lost healthy years at birth (years), females as a percentage of males, Arab and comparator countries, 2002 Female literacy rate as a percentage of male literacy rate (age 15+ years), world regions, 2003 70 71 72 74 75 75 76 77 79 83 85 86 2-3 Rates of obesity and overweight (population 15+ years) by gender, Arab and comparator countries, 2005 2-5 Combined gross enrolment rate, all levels of education, female as a percentage of male, Arab countries, 2002/2003 2-6 Gross enrolment rate in tertiary education, females as a percentage of males, world regions, 2002/2003 2-7 2-9 3-1 Girls' net enrolment rate in primary education (%) and girls' rate as a percentage of boys', Arab countries, 2002/2003 Girls' gross enrolment rate in tertiary education (%) and girls' enrolment as a percentage of boys', Arab countries, 2002/2003 Female (age 15+ years) economic activity rate (%) and female activity rate as a percentage of male activity rate, world regions, 2003 2-8 Girls' net enrolment rate in secondary education (%) and girls' enrolment as a percentage of boys', Arab countries, 2002/2003 2-10 Percentage of girls among eminent secondary school graduates, five Arab countries, 2003-2005 3-2 Female unemployment rate as a percentage of male unemployment rate, Arab countries and world regions, most recent year available 3-3 Labour force participation, by sector of economic activity and by gender, five Arab countries, 1995-2002 3-4 Year in which women were granted the unrestricted right to vote and the right to stand for election, by Arab country 3-5 Share of women in parliament, by world region 89 95 95 96 102 3-6 Seats in parliament (lower or single house) held by women (% of total), Arab countries, 29 March 2006 3-7 Percentage of Arab women researchers, by specialisation LIST OF TABLES 2-1 Reasons for dropping out after basic education in the occupied Palestinian territory, by gender (%) 2-2 Percentage of female students in selected specialisations in Arab universities, 2002/2003 3-1 Women in the Arab world who won medals in the last six Olympic Games (1984-2004) 4-1 78 80 109 117 121 135 Female circumcision rates (up to the year 2000) (%) 4-2 Expatriate working women in Arab countries, 2002 5-1 Family laws in order of promulgation 8-1 Ratification by Arab countries of CEDAW and declarations and reservations to it, as of 3 July 2006 (in ascending order, by date 180 of ratification)

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