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The Psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory

Author: Medin, Douglas L. Publisher: Academic Press, 2001.Language: EnglishDescription: 381 p. : Graphs ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0125433409Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print BF503 .P79 2001
(Browse shelf)
001192321
Available 001192321
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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The Psychology of Learning and Motivation Advances in Research and Theory Contents Contributors ................................................................................................................................... ix DIFFERENT ORGANIZATION OF CONCEPTS AND MEANING SYSTEMS IN THE TWO CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Dahlia W. Zaidel I. Introduction .................................................................................................... 1 II. Concepts, Schemas, and Categories in the Hemispheric Long-Term Memory............................................................................................ 3 III. Constraining Influences in the Interaction between Hemispheric Specialization and Long-Term Memory ......................................................... 16 IV. Possible Answers to the Biological Logic of Hemispheric Long-Term Memory ........................................................................................... 17 V. Conclusions .....................................................................................................18 References ....................................................................................................... 19 THE CAUSAL STATUS EFFECT IN CATEGORIZATION: AN OVERVIEW Woo-kyoung Ahn and Nancy S. Kim I. Different Approaches to Understanding Feature Centrality ............................ 23 II. Causal Status Hypothesis: General Introduction ...........................................27 III. Essentialism and the Causal Status Hypothesis ......................................... 29 IV. Main Empirical Results Supporting the Causal Status Hypothesis ...................................................................................... 31 vi Contents V. Related Phenomena Accounted for by the Causal Status Hypothesis: Natural Kinds versus Artifacts ....................................................... 33 VI. Computational Modeling .............................................................................................. 37 VII. Moderating Factors ....................................................................................................... 38 VIII. Causal versus Isolated Features ........................................................................... 49 IX. Application ......................................................................................................................... 52 X. Other Types of Dependency Relations .................................................................... 57 XI. Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 61 References .......................................................................................................................... 61 REMEMBERING AS A SOCIAL PROCESS Mary Susan Weldon I. Introduction ..........................................................................................................................67 II. Arguments for the Social Nature of Memory ....................................................... 68 III. How Can Remembering Be Studied as a Social Process? ............................77 IV. Collaborative Remembering and Collective Memory ....................................... 91 V. Conclusions .......................................................................................................................115 References ........................................................................................................................ 116 NEUROCOGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN MEMORY Ken A. Paller I. What Evidence from Neuroscience Is Relevant for Understanding Cognition? ....................................................................................... 122 II. The Neural Implementation of Declarative Memory ...................................... 124 III. Electrophysiological Measures of Recollection ............................................... 131 IV. Electrophysiological Measures of Perceptual Priming ................................ 137 V. Conclusions: Cognitive Neuroscience and Human Memory ........................ 138 References ........................................................................................................................ 140 STRUCTURAL INFLUENCES ON IMPLICIT AND EXPLICIT SEQUENCE LEARNING Tim Curran, Michael D. Smith, Joseph M. DiFranco, and Aaron T Daggy I. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 147 II. Group Differences Revealed by Structural Manipulations ......................... 149 Contents III. Effects of Reversal Frequency on Implicit and Explicit Sequence Learning (Experiments 3 to 5) .......................................................... 162 IV. General Discussion ..................................................................................................... 173 V. Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 178 References ..................................................................................................................... 178 vii RECALL PROCESSES IN RECOGNITION MEMORY Caren M. Rotello I. Introduction .......................................................................................................................183 II. Evidence on the Use of Recall in Recognition .................................................. 184 III. Evidence on the Specific Nature of the Recall Process .............................. 186 IV. Factors That Influence the Use of Recall Processes in Recognition .............................................................................................................. 193 V. Other Measures of Recall-to-Reject Processing ............................................... 194 VI. The Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve .................................................195 VII. Conjoint Recognition ................................................................................................. 201 VIII. Experiment ................................................................................................................... 204 IX. Conjoint Recognition Estimate of Recall-to-Reject Processing ............... 212 X. Familiarity-Based Explanations of the Data .................................................... 216 XI. Conclusions .................................................................................................................... 217 References ..................................................................................................................... 218 REWARD LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT, INCENTIVES, AND EXPECTATIONS Kent C. Berridge I. Reinforcement Theories ............................................................................................... 223 II. Bases of Modern Incentive Theory: Bolles­Bindra­Toates ......................... 234 III. Consequences for the Incentive Model of Motivation and Reward ................................................................................................................... 239 IV. Do Conditioned Incentive Stimuli Take on the Motivational Properties of Primary Incentive Stimuli? ........................................................ 246 V. Splitting Pavlovian Incentives: "Liking" versus "Wanting" ......................... 252 VI. From Pavlovian Incentives to Incentive Expectations: Dickinson­Balleine .................................................................................................... 257 VII. Brain Mechanisms of Reward Learning ........................................................... 264 VIII. Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 271 References ..................................................................................................................... 272 viii Contents SPATIAL DIAGRAMS: KEY INSTRUMENTS IN THE TOOLBOX FOR THOUGHT Laura R. Novick I. The Toolbox for Thought ................................................................................... II. The Importance of Selecting the Appropriate Representational Tool ................................................................................. III. Spatial Diagram Tools ................................................................................... IV. Overview of the Chapter ................................................................................. V. The Use of Exemplar Knowledge in Choosing Diagrammatic Tools ...................................................................................... VI. The Existence in Memory of Abstract Tool Schemas.................................... VII. A Structural Analysis of the Three Spatial Diagram Tools ......................... VIII. Empirical Investigation of the Structural Analysis and Students' Diagram Knowledge ....................................................................................... IX. The Structure of Students' Knowledge about the Three Spatial Diagrams ....................................................................................... X. Constructing Spatial Diagrams ..................................................................... XI. Discussion .................................................................................................. References ..................................................................................................... 279 281 282 282 285 290 296 301 312 317 318 322 REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT IN THE PRISONER'S DILEMMA GAME Howard Rachlin, Jay Brown, and Forest Baker I. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... II. Playing Card Paradigm (Single Trials) ................................................................. III. Playing Card Paradigm (Grouped Trials) .......................................................... IV. Game Board Paradigm (Single Trials) ................................................................ V. Game Board Paradigm (Single Trials, Increased Reward for Cooperation) .......................................................................................................... VI. Game Board Paradigm (Patterned Trials) ......................................................... VII. Computer Paradigm (Probability of Reciprocation, Spinners) ............... VIII. Computer Paradigm (Probability of Reciprocation, No Spinners) ................................................................................................................. IX. Computer Paradigm (Probability of Reciprocation, Other Player) ................................................................................................................ X. Computer Paradigm (Probability of Reinforcement and Punishment Varied Separately) ........................................................................... XI. Computer Paradigm (Tit-for-Tat versus Pavlov) ............................................. XII. Conclusions .................................................................................................................. References ..................................................................................................................... Index.............................................................................................................................................. Contents of Recent Volumes................................................................................................ 327 332 336 340 345 347 348 353 354 356 358 362 363 365 377

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