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Managing business process flows: principles of operations management

Author: Anupindi, Ravi ; Chopra, Sunil ; Deshmukh, Sudhakar D. ; Van Mieghem, Jan A. ; Zemel, EitanPublisher: Prentice Hall, 2006.Edition: 2nd ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 340 p. : Graphs ; 25 cm. includes CD-ROM / DVDISBN: 0131676865 ; 0130675466Type of document: BookNote: CD available inside back cover of bookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Notes Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Asia Campus
Textbook Collection
Print TS155 .A68 2006
(Browse shelf)
900177016
Consultation only 900177016
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print TS155 .A68 2006
(Browse shelf)
001191794
Available CD available inside back cover 001191794
Total holds: 0

CD available inside back cover of book

Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary

Digitized

Managing Business Process Flows Principles of Operations Management Contents Preface xi xiv About iGrafx® ProcessTM PART I: PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND STRATEGY 1 CHAPTER 1 Products, Processes, and Performance 2 Introduction 2 1.1 The Process View of Organizations 3 1.2 Performance Measures 6 1.2.1 The Importance of Measurement: Management by Fact 6 1.2.2 Types of Measures: Financial, External, and Internal 6 1.3 Products and Product Attributes 9 1.4 Processes and Process Competencies 12 1.4.1 Process Competencies 12 1.4.2 Process Architectures: Job Shop versus Flow Shop 1.5 Process Design, Planning, Control, and Improvement 1.6 The Plan of the Book Summary 16 Key Terms 17 17 17 16 15 13 Discussion Questions Selected Bibliography CHAPTER 2 Operations Strategy and Management 18 19 Introduction 18 2.1 Strategic Positioning and Operational Effectiveness 2.2 The Strategy Hierarchy 2.3 Strategic Fit 22 24 26 28 20 2.4 Focused Operations 2.5 Matching Products and Processes 2.6 The Operations Frontier and Trade-Offs 2.7 The Evolution of Strategy and Operations Management Summary 35 Key Terms 35 35 36 32 Discussion Questions Selected Bibliography PART II: PROCESS FLOW MEASUREMENT 39 CHAPTER 3 Process Flow Measures 40 Introduction 3.1 The Essence of Process Flow 3.2 Three Key Process Measures 41 42 44 40 3.3 Flow Time, Flow Rate, and Inventory Dynamics 3.4 Throughput in a Stable Process 49 3.5 Little's Law: Relating Average Flow Time, Throughput, and Average Inventory 50 3.5.1 Material Flow 51 3.5.2 Customer Flow 51 3.5.3 Job Flow 52 3.5.4 Cash Flow 52 3.5.5 Cash Flow (Accounts Receivable) 52 3.5.6 Service Flow (Financing Applications at Auto-Moto) 53 3.6 Analyzing Financial Flows through Financial Statements 57 3.6.1 Assessing Financial Flow Performance 58 3.6.2 Cash-to-Cash Cycle Performance 61 3.6.3 Targeting Improvement with Detailed Financial Flow Analysis 62 3.7 Inventory Turns (Turnover Ratio) 64 3.8 Using Operational Measures to Improve Financial Measures: What Do We Mean by "an Improvement"? 65 Summary 67 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms 68 68 71 73 68 Discussion Questions Exercises 68 Modeling Exercise Selected Bibliography CHAPTER 4 Flow-Time Analysis 74 Introduction 74 76 4.1 The Process Flowchart 4.2 Flow-Time Measurement 78 4.3 Theoretical Flow Time 80 4.3.1 Activity Time and Critical Paths 80 4.3.2 Computing Flow Time 82 4.3.3 Value-Adding and Non-Value-Adding Activities 4.3.4 Extensions: Rework, Visits, and Work Content 4.3.5 Flow-Time Efficiency 86 4.4 Levers for Managing Theoretical Flow Time 88 84 84 4.4.1 Eliminate: Reducing the Work Content of Critical Activities 89 4.4.2 Work in Parallel: Moving Work Off the Critical Path 90 4.4.3 Select: Modifying the Product Mix 91 Summary 92 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms 93 93 96 98 99 101 93 Discussion Questions Exercises 94 Modeling Exercise Selected Bibliography Appendix: The Critical Path Method CHAPTER 5 Flow Rate and Capacity Analysis Introduction 101 5.1 Resources and Resource Pools 102 5.2 Flow Rate Measurement 104 5.2.1 Theoretical Capacity 104 5.2.2 Computing Theoretical Capacity 105 5.2.3 Extensions: Other Factors Affecting Theoretical Capacity 5.2.4 Throughput and Capacity Utilization 107 5.3 Effect of Product Mix on Theoretical Capacity and Profitability of a Process 110 5.3.1 Unit Load for Product Mix 110 5.3.2 Theoretical Capacity for Product Mix 1 1 0 5.3.3 Optimizing Profitability 114 5.4 Other Factors Affecting Process Capacity 5.4.1 Net Availability 116 5.4.2 Setups 116 5.4.3 Effective Capacity of a Process 118 5.5 Levers for Managing Throughput 119 5.5.1 Comparisons 119 5.5.2 Improving Theoretical Capacity120 5.5.3 Other Improvements 123 5.5.4 Internal and External Bottlenecks 5.5.5 The Improvement Spiral 124 Summary 124 125 115 106 123 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms 125 126 128 130 Discussion Problems Exercises 126 Modeling Exercise Selected Bibliography Appendix: Optimizing Product Mix with Linear Programming CHAPTER 6 Inventory Analysis Introduction 132 6.1 Inventory Classification 6.2 Inventory Benefits 137 132 134 131 6.2.1 Economies of Scale 137 6.2.2 Production and Capacity Smoothing 138 6.2.3 Stockout Protection 138 6.2.4 Price Speculation 139 6.3 Inventory Costs 139 141 144 150 6.4 Inventory Dynamics of Batch Purchasing 6.5 Economies of Scale and Optimal Cycle Inventory 6.6 Effect of Lead Times on Ordering Decisions 6.7 Price Discounts: Forward Buying 6.8 Levers for Managing Inventories Summary 156 157 152 155 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms Exercises 157 157 160 162 157 Discussion Questions Modeling Exercise Selected Bibliography Appendix: Derivation of EOQ Formula and Forward-Buying Quantity 163 PART III: PROCESS FLOW VARIABILITY 165 166 CHAPTER 7 Managing Flow Variability: Safety Inventory Introduction 166 7.1 Demand Forecasts and Forecast Errors 7.2 Safety Inventory and Service Level 168 169 7.2.1 Service Level Measures 170 7.2.2 Continuous Review, Reorder Point System171 7.2.3 Service Level Given Safety Inventory 173 7.2.4 Safety Inventory Given Service Level 175 7.3 Optimal Service Level: The Newsvendor Problem 7.4 Lead Time Demand Variability 183 7.4.1 Fixed Replenishment Lead Time 184 7.4.2 Variability in Replenishment Lead Time 185 7.5 Pooling Efficiency through Aggregation 187 177 7.5.1 Physical Centralization 187 7.5.2 Principle of Aggregation and Pooling Inventory 191 7.6 Shortening the Forecast Horizon through Postponement 7.7 Levers for Reducing Safety Inventory Summary 194 194 193 192 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms 195 195 197 Discussion Questions Exercises 195 Modeling Exercise Selected Bibliography 200 Appendix: Calculating Service Level for a Given Safety Inventory 201 CHAPTER 8 Managing Flow Variability: Safety Capacity 202 Introduction 202 8.1 Service Process and Its Performance 204 8.1.1 Service Processes 204 8.1.2 Service Process Attributes206 8.1.3 Service Process Performance207 8.1.4 Relationships between Performance Measures210 8.2 Effect of Variability on Process Performance 211 8.3 Drivers of Process Performance 214 8.3.1 The Queue Length Formula 215 8.3.2 The Exponential Model 217 8.4 Performance Improvement Levers 219 8.4.1 Variability Reduction Levers219 8.4.2 Capacity Utilization Levers 220 8.4.3 Synchronization of Capacity with Demand221 8.5 Effect of Pooling Capacity 222 8.6 Effect of Blocking and Abandonment 8.7 Capacity Investment Decisions 226 228 232 224 8.7.1 The Economics of Buffer Capacity227 8.7.2 The Economics of Processing Capacity 8.8 Variability in Process Performance 229 8.9 Managing Customer Perceptions and Expectations Summary 233 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms 234 234 238 240 233 Discussion Questions Exercises 235 Modeling Exercise Selected Bibliography Appendix: The Exponential Model with Finite Buffer Capacity 241 CHAPTER 9 Managing Flow Variability: Process Control and Capability 242 Introduction 242 9.1 Performance Variability 9.2 Analysis of Variability 9.2.1 Check Sheets 246 9.2.2 Pareto Charts 247 9.2.3 Histograms 248 9.2.4 Run Charts 249 9.2.5 Multi-Vari Charts 250 9.3 Process Control 252 9.3.1 The Feedback Control Principle 252 9.3.2 Types and Causes of Variability 244 246 253 9.3.3 Control Limit Policy 255 9.3.4 Control Charts 256 9.3.5 Cause­Effect Diagrams 263 9.3.6 Scatter Plots 264 9.4 Process Capability 265 9.4.1 Fraction of Output within Specifications266 9.4.2 Process Capability Ratios (Cpk and Cp) 266 9.4.3 Six-Sigma Capability 268 9.4.4 Capability and Control 270 9.5 Process Capability Improvement 270 9.5.1 Mean Shift 270 9.5.2 Variability Reduction 270 9.5.3 Effect of Process Improvement on Process Control 272 9.6 Product and Process Design 273 9.6.1 Design for Processing 273 9.6.2 Robust Design 274 Summary 274 Key Equations and Symbols Key Terms 276 276 278 275 Discussion Questions Exercises 276 Selected Bibliography PART IV: PROCESS INTEGRATION 281 CHAPTER 10 Lean Operations: Process Synchronization and Improvement 282 Introduction 282 283 284 10.1 Processing Networks 10.2 The Process Ideal: Synchronization and Efficiency 10.3 Waste and Its Sources 285 10.4 Improving Flows in a Plant: Basic Principles of Lean Operations 289 10.4.1 Improving Process Architecture: Cellular Layouts 290 10.4.2 Improving Information and Material Flow: Demand Pull 291 10.4.3 Improving Process Flexibility: Batch-Size Reduction 294 10.4.4 Quality at Source: Defect Prevention and Early Detection 295 10.4.5 Reducing Processing Variability: Standardization of Work, Maintenance, and Safety Capacity 296 10.4.6 Visibility of Performance 297 10.4.7 Managing Human Resources: Employee Involvement 2 7 9 10.4.8 Supplier Management: Partnerships 10.5 Improving Flows in a Supply Chain 299 298 10.5.1 Lack of Synchronization: The Bullwhip Effect 300 10.5.2 Causes of the Bullwhip Effect 301 10.5.3 Levers to Counteract the Bullwhip Effect 303 10.6 The Improvement Process 306 10.6.1 Process Stabilization: Standardizing and Controlling the Process 10.6.2 Continuous Improvement: Management by Sight and Stress 306 10.6.3 Business Process Reengineering: Process Innovation 307 10.6.4 Benchmarking: Heeding the Voices of the Best 308 10.6.5 Managing Change 309 Summary 309 Key Terms 310 311 311 313 306 Discussion Questions Selected Bibliography Appendix I MBPF Checklist Process Flow Measures 313 Levers for Managing Theoretical Flow Time 313 Levers for Managing Throughput 313 Levers for Reducing Waiting Time 314 Levers for Controlling Process Variability 314 Levers for Managing Flows in Processing Networks Random Variables, Mean, Variance, and Covariance Random Variable 316 Mean 316 Variance 316 Covariance and Coefficient of Correlation 317 Some Probability Distributions 317 317 318 The Poisson Probability Distribution The Exponential Probability Distribution The Normal Probability Distribution 318 314 316 316 Appendix II Background Material in Probability and Statistics Appendix III iGrafx® FlowCharterTM Quick Reference Guide Appendix IV iGrafx® Process Simulation Quick Reference Guide Five-Step Process to Simulation Analysis Step 3: Build a Process Model 323 323 320 323 Create a Process Diagram (Map or Flowchart) 323 Describe the Behavior of Each Shape/Activity 324 Describe the Process Environment in the Scenario 326 Execute Simulation and Analyze Results in the Report Glossary Index 329 336 327

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