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E-cycling: linking trade and environmental law in the EC and the US

Author: Kalimo, Harri Publisher: Transnational , 2006.Language: EnglishDescription: 757 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 1571053565Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print GE190 .K35 2006
(Browse shelf)
001191273
Available 001191273
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Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

E-Cycling Linking Trade and Environmental Law in the EC and the U.S. Contents Foreword......................................................................................... ix Acknowledgments ...................................................................................... xiii PART I INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: Background, Intention and Structure.............................. 3 1.1 Environment and Trade....................................................................... 3 1.2 Electronics Recycling at the Crossroads of Contemporary Environmental and Trade Law............................... 4 1.3 The Constitutional Dimension 19 1.4 The Comparative Dimension............................................................ 23 1.5 The Practical Dimension ................................................................. 1.6 A Recapitulation of the Research Setting and the Dimensions of the Analysis ........................................................ 1.7 The Central Thesis and Objectives ................................................. 1.8 Structure........................................................................................... PART II ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, TRADE LAW, AND ELECTRONICS RECYCLING 25 27 28 33 Chapter 2: Regulatory Competition ................................................... 39 2.1 Constitutional Models of Regulatory Competition and Harmonization ...................................................................... 39 2.2 Law of Prohibition and Law of Justification.................................... 40 2.3 Law of Prohibition 2.3.1 Efficiency as the Trigger for the Law of Prohibition . . . . 49 49 2.3.2 Obstacle Approach......................................................................... 52 2.3.3 Discrimination Approach 59 2.3.4 Typological Approach--The "Universal Field Theory" of Trade Law.............................................................................68 2.3.5 Political Representativeness Approach.......................................... 78 2.3.6 Synthesis of the Law of Prohibition ............................................. 86 iv · E-Cycling: Linking Trade and Environmental Law 2.4 Law of Justification......................................................................... 88 2.4.1 The Ideology of Balancing Tests.................................................. 90 2.4.1.1 Legitimizing Justifications.........................................................90 2.4.1.2 Reconciling Values.................................................................... 93 2.4.2 Institutional and Normative Aspects............................................ 94 2.4.3 Elements of a Balancing Test....................................................... 95 2.4.3.1 Legitimate Interest 96 2.4.3.2 "Equivalence Balancing"--Necessary and Least Restrictive Measures.......................................................... 99 2.4.3.3 "Net Balancing"--Proportionality......................................... 106 2.4.3.4 Disguised Restrictions, Arbitrary Discrimination. . . ........... 115 2.4.3.5 Allocating the Burden of Proof.............................................. 117 2.4.4 The Court and Value Choices.................................................... 119 2.4.5 Synthesis on the Law of Justification........................................ 121 Chapter 3: Harmonization............................................................... 125 3.1 From Regulatory Competition to Harmonization ....................... 126 3.2 Vertical Division of Powers Between the Federal and State Level................................................................................ 130 3.3 Total Harmonization or Qualified Harmonization? .................... 137 3.3.1 Total Harmonization and Derogations Therefrom . . . ............ 139 3.3.2 Minimum Harmonization .......................................................... 151 Chapter 4: Recycling Electronics--Preliminary Practical and Legal Viewpoints ....................................................................... 159 4.1 The Environmental Rationale of Recycling Electronics................................................................................. 159 4.2 The Economic Rationale of Recycling Electronics .................... 167 4.3 Principles, Processes and Parties of Recycling Electronics 173 4.4 Legislative and Regulatory Measures Influencing Recycling.................................................................................... 184 4.5 The European Community--Federal-Level Provisions . . ......... 186 4.6 The European Community--State-Level Provisions . . . ........... 191 4.7 The United States--Federal-Level Provisions............................. 193 4.8 The United States--State-Level Provisions 196 Contents · v PART III ELECTRONICS RECYCLING AT THE CROSSROADS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND TRADE LAW Chapter 5: Product Requirements on Recycling Electronics .........................................................................................201 5.1 Harnessing Technological Developments in Electronics for the Benefit of Nature ....................................... 202 5.2 Design-for-Recycling and Life-Cycle Thinking...........................206 5.3 Substance Bans--The Example of Lead-Free Electronics .................................................................................226 5.4 Recyclability................................................................................ 251 5.5 Recycled Content--Processes and Production Methods ("PPMs") ....................................................................263 5.6 New Approach and Essential Requirements ............................... 276 5.7 Case of "Servification" and Environmental Proportionality .......................................................................... 285 Chapter 6: Waste Electronics ..........................................................299 6.1 Products or Wastes 299 6.2 Hazardous Waste ......................................................................... 319 6.3 Movements of Waste in Interstate Trade .....................................331 6.3.1 The Harmonization Approach .................................................. 332 6.3.1.1 Shipments for Recovery......................................................... 333 6.3.1.2 Shipments for Disposal ..........................................................345 6.3.1.3 Individual and Aggregate Environmental Impacts ..............................................................................351 6.3.1.4 Concluding Remarks on the Harmonization of Movement. of Waste..................................................... 356 6.3.2 The Regulatory Competition Approach.....................................359 6.3.2.1 Flow Control Schemes............................................................359 6.3.2.2 Pre-Treatment Requirements .................................................370 6.3.2.3 The Market Participation Exception ......................................378 6.3.2.4 Regional Arrangements Between Regulatory Competition and Harmonization .......................................381 6.3.2.5 Change in the Constitutional Approach?................................383 vi · E-Cycling: Linking Trade and Environmental Law Chapter 7: Recycling Schemes.......................................................... 387 7.1 Cultural Differences and Scale Advantages ..................................387 7.1.1 Danish Bottles and Cans ............................................................ 394 7.1.2 Oregon Bottles and Cans.............................................................417 7.2 Private and Public Schemes........................................................... 427 7.3 Voluntary Schemes.........................................................................440 7.4 Overwhelming Quantities? ............................................................ 446 7.5 Constitutional Aspects ...................................................................450 Chapter 8: Extended Producer Responsibility................................455 8.1 Division of Recycling Responsibilities Between the Stakeholders.........................................................................456 8.1.1 Polluter Pays Principle................................................................ 457 8.1.2 Sustainable Development and Eco-Efficiency ...........................460 8.1.3 Shared Responsibility.................................................................. 462 8.1.4 Regulatory Competition and Harmonization ............................. 465 8.1.5 Environmental Proportionality Reverse Application of the Polluter Pays Principle ....................473 8.2 Collective or Individual Financial Responsibility? ....................... 473 8.3 "Visible Fees" or Internalized Costs.............................................. 490 8.4 Retroactive Environmental Responsibility ................................... 496 8.5 "Orphan Products," "Free Riders" and "Recycling Guarantees" ............................................................. 500 Chapter 9: Market-Based Tools........................................................519 9.1 Internalizing the Externalities........................................................ 523 9.2 Deposit and Refund Schemes.........................................................526 9.3 Tradable Pollution Permits ............................................................540 Chapter 10: Information Requirements.......................................... 551 10-.1 Mandatory Information Requirements........................................555 10.1.1 Negative and Neutral Content Requirements............................555 10.1.2 Information Requirements Less Restrictive Alternative?.................................................. 559 10.1.3 Curtailing Fragmentation ......................................................... 573 10.1.4 Extraterritorial Requirements....................................................586 Contents · vii 10.2 Voluntary Information Schemes................................................ 588 10.2.1 Eco-Declarations and Eco-Labels .......................................... 588 10.2.2 A Voluntary Information Scheme?..........................................591 10.2.3 Arbitrary Discrimination ........................................................ 601 10.2.4 Least Restrictive Measures......................................................606 10.2.5 Public and Private Harmonization ..........................................611 PART IV TOWARDS MUTUALLY REINFORCING ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND TRADE LAW Chapter 11: Conclusions ................................................................. 621 11.1 Recycling Waste Electronics--A Rich Interplay of Contemporary Environmental Protection and Trade Law..................................................................................621 11.2 Towards Mutually Reinforcing Environmental Policies ........... 625 11.2.1 Life-Cycle Thinking Backed With Sound Science . . . .......... 626 11.2.2 Responsive Environmentalism................................................ 632 11.2.3 Fair and Effective Allocation of Obligations and Rights to Harness Market. Forces for the Benefit of the Environment ................................................................... 636 11.2.4 Reforming Waste Policies on Electronics............................... 638 11.3 Towards a Mutually Reinforcing, Common Interstate Trade Law..................................................................................641 11.3.1 Law of Prohibition .................................................................. 641 11.3.2 Law of Justification................................................................. 644 11.3.3 Convergence Towards Universal Field Theory of Trade Law..............................................................................650 11.4 Emerging Constitutional Synthesis: Regulatory Competition and Harmonization .............................................. 658 11.4.1 Regulatory Competition ......................................................... 658 11.4.2 Harmonization......................................................................... 662 11.4.3 Regulatory Competition and Harmonization.......................... 669 viii · E-Cycling: Linking Trade and Environmental Law Annexes .............................................................................................. 677 Annex 1: Recycling Technologies for Electronics ............................. 677 Annex 2: Examples of Design for the Environment Tools Deploying a Life-Cycle Analysis..................................... 679 Annex 3: Marketable Rights--A Hypothetical Illustration . . . .......... 681 Bibliography........................................................................................ 687 List of Cases........................................................................................ 723 Table of Legal Provisions ...................................................................735 Index.....................................................................................................751

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