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Deviance and medicalization: from badness to sickness

Author: Conrad, Peter ; Schneider, Joseph W.Publisher: Temple University Press, 1992.Language: EnglishDescription: 326 p. ; 25 cm.ISBN: 0877229996Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HV5000 .C66 1992
(Browse shelf)
Available 32419001158827
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references and index


Deviance and Medicalization From Badness to Sickness Contents 1 Deviance, definitions, and the medical profession, 1 Sociological orientations to deviance, 1 Witchcraft in Salem Village, 3 Universality and relativity of deviance, 5 Social control, 7 The medical profession and deviance in America, 9 Emergence of the medical profession: up to 1850, 9 Crusading, deviance, and medical monopoly: the case of abortion, 10 Growth of medical expertise and professional dominance, 13 Structure of medical practice, 14 Overview of the book, 16 Suggested readings, 16 2 From badness to sickness: changing designations of deviance and social control, 17 A historical-social constructionist approach to deviance, 17 Deviance as collective action: the labeling-interactionist tradition, 18 Social construction of reality: a sociology of knowledge, 20 Politics of definition, 22 Politics of deviance designation, 25 Deviance, illness, and medicalization, 28 The social construction of illness, 29 Illness and deviance, 32 Medicalization of deviance, 32 Expansion of medical jurisdiction over deviance, 34 The medical model and "moral neutrality," 35 Summary, 35 Suggested readings, 37 3 Medical model of madness: the emergence of mental illness, 38 Smitten by madness: ancient Palestine, 38 Roots of the medical model: classical Greece and Rome, 39 Dominance of the theological model: the Middle Ages, 41 Witchcraft, witch-hunts, and madness, 42 The European experience: madness becomes mental illness, 43 The great confinement, 44 Separation of the able-bodied from the lunatics, 44 Entrance of the physician, 45 Emergence of a unitary concept of mental illness, 47 The 19th-century American experience: the institutionalization of mental illness, 48 Asylum-building movement: a new "cure" for insanity, 49 The science of mental disease, 52 Freud, psychoanalysis, and medicalization, 53 Reappearance of the somaticists, 54 Mental illness and the public, 56 Reform and institutionalization, 56 Public acceptance, 57 Mental illness and criminal law, 58 The third revolution in mental health, 60 Psychotropic medication, 61 Decline in mental hospital populations, 62 Sociological research, 62 Psychiatric critique, 65 Community mental health: a bold, new approach, 66 Federal action and professional growth, 66 Community psychiatry, 67 Community psychiatry and the medical model, 69 Medical model of madness in the 1970s, 70 Summary, 71 Suggested readings, 72 4 Alcoholism: drunkenness, inebriety, and the disease concept, 73 Physiology of alcohol: uncontested applications of the medical model, 73 Alcohol and behavior: the question of control and the beginning of contest, 75 Disinhibitor hypothesis, 75 Deviant drinking as disease: historical foundations, 78 Colonial period, 78 The disease of inebriety and the concept of alcohol addiction, 79 Disease concept and the American temperance movement, 82 An enemy and a weapon: disease and abstinence, 82 Rise of the inebriate asylum and the rush to Prohibition, 83 Post-Prohibition rediscovery: the Yale Center, Alcoholics Anonymous, and the Jellinek formulation, 85 Yale Research Center of Alcohol Studies, 86 Alcoholics Anonymous, 88 Jellinek formulation, 90 Is alcoholism a disease? 97 Medical response to the disease concept, 98 Supreme Court and the disease concept, 100 Future of the disease concept of alcoholism, 102 A coming crisis? 102 Scientific claims, 103 Summary, 106 Suggested readings, 109 5 Opiate addiction: the fall and rise of medical involvement, 110 Nature of opiates, 110 A miracle drug: pre-19th-century use of opiates, 111 Politics of opium in the 19th century, 113 Recreational use in England and China, 113 Medical uses: from a panacea to a problem, 114 Discovery of addiction as a disease, 115 Addicts and addiction in a "dope fiend's paradise," 116 Entrepreneurs and the morality of opium: the creation of an evil, 117 American attitudes toward opiate addiction: from empathy to anxiety, 119 First prohibition of smoking opium, 120 Discovery of heroin, 120 Criminalization and demedicalization, 121 A quest for international control and the United States' response, 121 Harrison Act: the criminalization of addiction, 123 Reign of the criminal designation, 127 Addiction becomes a "criminal menace," 128 Why narcotics laws have failed, 129 Reemergence of medical designations of addiction, 130 Support for a medical designation, 131 Excursus: the British experience, 132 Methadone and the remedicalization of opiate addiction, 134 " Heroin epidemic" and available treatment, 135 Adoption of methadone maintenance as public policy, 136 Methadone revisionists, 139 A final note on methadone and medicalization, 141 Summary, 142 Suggested readings, 144 6 Children and medicalization: delinquency, hyperactivity, and child abuse, 145 Discovery of childhood, 145 Origins of juvenile delinquency, 146 Childhood deviance into the 19th century, 147 Child-savers and the house of refuge, 147 Child-savers and the ideology of child welfare, 149 Juvenile court, 150 William Healy, court clinics, and the child guidance movement, 152 Medical-clinical model of delinquency today, 154 Discovery of hyperkinesis, 155 Medical diagnosis of hyperkinesis, 155 Discovery of hyperkinesis, 156 A sociological analysis, 159 Child abuse as a medical problem, 161 Historical notes on the maltreatment of children, 161 Child protection, 162 Medical involvement and the discovery of child abuse, 163 Child abuse as a medical and social problem, 165 Social scientists' views of child abuse, 166 Changes in the definitions of what constitutes child abuse, 168 Children as a population "at risk" for medicalization, 169 Suggested readings, 170 7 Homosexuality: from sin to sickness to life-style, 172 Moral foundations: the sin against nature, 172 Ancient origins: the Persians and Hebrews, 173 Contributions of the Greeks, 174 From sin to crime: early Christianity and the Middle Ages, 176 New moral consensus: sin becomes sickness, 179 Medicine and moral continuity in the 18th century, 179 Masturbation and threatened manhood: a crusade in defense of moral health, 180 Consolidating the medical model: the invention of homosexuality, 181 Hereditary predisposition, 181 Criminalization and medicalization, 182 Homosexuality as a medical pathology, 183 Rise of the psychiatric perspective, 185 Contribution of Freud, 185 Sacrificing Freud: the reestablishment of pathology and the promise of cure, 187 Demedicalization: the continuing history of a challenge, 193 The armor of pioneering defense: "nature," knowledge, and medicine, 194 Spreading skepticism: social change and social science research, 196 Rise of gay liberation: homosexuality as identity and life-style, 199 Official death of pathology: the American Psychiatric Association decision on homosexuality, 204 Beyond sickness, what? 209 Summary, 211 Suggested readings, 213 8 Medicine and crime: the search for the born criminal and the medical control of criminality, 215 Richard Moran The therapeutic ideal and the search for the born criminal, 216 Lombroso and the emergence of a biological criminology, 217 Danger of therapeutic tyranny, 222 A century of biomedical research, 223 Psychosurgery and the control of violence, 224 The X YY chromosome carrier, 226 The Lombrosian recapitulation, 226 Behavior modification, 228 Positive reinforcement, 230 Negative reinforcement, 232 Biotechnology, 235 CIA and mind control, 237 Summary and implications, 239 Suggested readings, 240 9 Medicine as an institution of social control: consequences for society, 241 Types of medical social control, 241 Medical technology, 242 Medical collaboration, 244 Medical ideology, 245 Social consequences of medicalizing deviance, 245 Brighter side, 246 Darker side, 248 Exclusion of evil, 251 Medicalization of deviance and social policy, 252 Criminal justice: decriminalization, decarceration, and the therapeutic state, 252 Trends in medicine and medicalization, 254 Punitive backlash, 256 Some social policy recommendations, 256 Medicalizing deviance: a final note, 258 Summary, 259 10 A theoretical statement on the medicalization of deviance, 261 Historical and conceptual background, 261 American society as fertile ground for medicalization, 263 An inductive theory of the medicalization of deviance, 265 A sequential model, 266 Grounded generalizations, 271 Sociologists as challengers, 274 Hunches and hypotheses: notes for further research, 275 A concluding remark, 276 Summary, 276 Afterword Deviance and medicalization: a decade later, 277 Some conceptual issues, 277 Deviance and Medicalization and social constructionism, 279 Reflections on medicalized deviance a decade later, 280 Mental illness, 280 Alcoholism, 281 Opiate addiction, 282 Homosexuality, 283 Hyperactivity, child, abuse, and family violence, 284 New areas of study and future issues, 286 References, 288 Bibliography, 293 Author index, 311 Subject index, 317

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