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Chinese: an essential grammar

Author: Po-Ching, Yip ; Rimmington, DonPublisher: Routledge 2006.Language: EnglishDescription: 242 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0415372615Type of document: Book
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print P1000 .CH P63 2006
(Browse shelf)
001176902
Available 001176902
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Chinese An Essential Grammar Contents Preface Introduction The Chinese language Mandarin pronunciation The Chinese vocabulary xiii I 1 2 5 Part I Nouns Introduction 1 Nouns 1.1 Noun features 1.2 Proper nouns 1.3 Common nouns 1.3.1 The plural suffix -- men 1.3.2 Nouns and definite or indefinite reference 1.4 Nouns and conjunctions 1.5 Common nouns: countability 2 Numerals and nouns 2.1 Cardinal numbers 2.1.1 Two forms of the number two 2.2 Ordinal numbers 2.3 `Half' 2.4 Fractions, percentages, decimals, multiples, and `every' 2.5 Approximation 3 Measures for nouns 3.1 Measures and gè 3.2 Other measure words 3.3 Abstract nouns 3.4 Material nouns 3.5 Collective nouns 9 9 10 10 11 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 19 21 21 22 27 27 27 4 Pronouns 4.1 Personal pronouns 4.2 Possessive pronouns 4.3 Demonstrative pronouns 4.4 Interrogative pronouns 4.5 Other pronouns 4.6 Pronouns and conjunctions 5 Adjectives and attributives 5.1 Attributives 5.2 Adjectives as attributives 5.2.1 Monosyllabic adjectives 5.2.2 Polysyllabic adjectives and de 5.2.3 Disyllabic adjectives and de 5.3 Nominal attributives 5.3.1 Nominal attributives and de 5.4 Prepositional and postpositional phrases as attributives 5.5 Verbal phrases or clauses as attributives 5.6 The order of sequential attributives 5.7 Demonstrative and numeral phrases with other attributives 5.8 Possessive pronoun and other attributives 5.9 Ér between adjectives 5.10 Omission of the noun following an attributive 5.11 Attributives in word-formation Part II Verbs Introduction 6 Adjectival and nominal predicates; the verb shì 6.1 Adjectival predicates 6.2 Adjectival predicates and the verb `to be' 6.2.1 Adjectival predicates and degree adverbs 6.2.2 Adjectival predicates in the negative 6.2.3 Adjectival predicates followed by verbs 6.3 Non-gradable adjectives as attributives 6.3.1 Attributives of shape, colour or material 6.4 Nominal and pronominal predicates 6.4.1 Verbs resembling shi 6.4.2 Nominal predicates without a copula 6.5 The copula shi in its negative form 7 The verb you; comparisons 7.1 The functions of you 7.1.1 You indicating possession 28 28 30 31 32 34 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 46 46 47 47 49 49 49 50 50 50 7.1.2 Méi as negative of you 7.1.3 Yôu indicating change or development 7.1.4 You forming idiomatic expressions 7.1.5 You introducing adjectival predicates 7.2 Comparison 7.2.1 Emphatic or specific comparison 7.2.2 Negative comparison 7.2.3 Comparison: equivalence or similarity 7.3 Comparatives and superlatives 8 Verbs and aspect markers 8.1 Action, state, and dative verbs 8.2 Action verbs 8.3 Aspect markers 8.3.1 Le 8.3.2 Guo 8.3.3 Zài 8.3.4 Zhe 8.4 State verb 8.5 Dative verbs 8.5.1 Dative verbs relating to spoken activity 8.5.2 Dative verbs and aspect markers 8.6 Causative verbs 8.7 Imperatives 8.7.1 Polite requests 8.7.2 Imperatives and aspect markers 9 Motion verbs and direction indicators 9.1 Motion verbs and simple direction indicators 9.2 Motion verbs and compound direction indicators 9.3 Motion verbs with metaphorical meaning 9.4 Direction indicators with specific meanings 10 Verbs and time 10.1 Time expressions 10.2 Point of time expressions 10.2.1 Detailed time expressions 10.3 Point-of-time expressions incorporating verbal phrases 10.4 Imprecise points of time 10.5 Indefinite points of time 10.6 Frequency expressions with méi 10.7 Time expressions in existence sentences 10.7.1 Time expressions in emergence or disappearance sentences 11 Verbs and location 11.1 Location expressions 51 51 52 52 53 54 54 55 56 56 56 56 57 57 59 60 61 62 63 64 64 65 66 67 67 67 67 70 72 73 74 74 75 77 78 79 80 80 81 81 81 81 11.2 Zàiand postpositional phrases 11.2.1 Disyllabic postpositions 11.2.2 Disyllabic postpositions as location pronouns 11.3 Simple location sentences 11.4 Location phrases modifying main verbs 11.5 Location phrases in existence sentences 11.5.1 Shi in existence sentences 11.5.2 Zhe in existence sentences 11.6 Le in emergence or disappearance sentences 11.7 Order of sequence of time and location phrases 12 Verbs: duration and frequency 12.1 Duration expressions 12.1.1 Duration expressions and noun objects 12.1.2 Repetition of the verb in a noun-objectduration structure 12.1.3 Duration expressions and pronoun objects 12.1.4 Duration expressions in dative construction 12.1.5 Duration expressions and definite reference 12.2 Brief duration 12.2.1 Brief duration and instrumental objects 12.3 Frequency expressions 13 Verbs and complements 13.1 Complements 13.2 Complements of result 13.3 Potential complements 13.3.1 Potential complements using direction indicators 13.3.2 Metaphorical meanings of potential complements 13.4 Complements of manner and of consequential state 13.4.1 Modification of complement of manner 13.4.2 Complement of consequential state 13.4.3 Complements of manner or consequential state with a `verb + object' verb 13.4.4 Adjectival complements of manner in comparisons 13.4.5 Complement-of-manner comparison with a `verb + object' verb 13.5 Complement of location or destination 13.6 Degree complements 14 Verbs and adverbials 14.1 Adverbials of manner 82 83 85 85 86 87 88 89 90 90 90 90 91 92 92 93 93 94 95 95 96 96 97 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 105 106 106 14.1.1 Monosyllabic adjectives as adverbials of manner 14.1.2 Adverbials of manner with marked verbs 14.1.3 Adverbials of manner with unmarked verbs 1.4 Monosyllabic adverbial modifiers without de 14.1.5 Particular types of adverbials of manner 14.2 Attitudinal adverbial expressions 14.3 Referential adverbs 14.4 Referential adverbs with negatives 14.5 Order of sequence of referential adverbs 14.6 Order of adverbials in sequence 15 Modal and similar verbs 15.1 Modal, attitudinal, and intentional verbs 15.2 Modal verbs 15.2.1 Modal verbs and adverbs of degree 15.2.2 Modal verbs and comparison 15.3 Attitudinal verbs 15.3.1 Wangle and Jìde 15.3.2 Gãoxìng 15.4 Intentional verbs 15.4.1 Negation of intentional verbs Part III Sentences Introduction 16 Statements and the sentence particle le 16.1 Le as a sentence particle 16.2 Functions of sentence le 16.2.1 Summing-up function of le 16.2.2 Le as both sentence particle and aspect marker 16.3 Cases where sentence le is not used 16.4 Ultimate versatility of sentence le 17 Questions 17.1 Question-word questions 17.1.1 Zénmeyàng 17.1.2 Duõ in questions 17.1.3 Ne in questions 17.2 General questions with ma 17.3 Surmise questions with ba 17.4 Affirmative-negative questions 17.5 Alternative questions with hãishì 17.6 Tags indicating suggestion 107 107 108 108 108 109 110 114 114 115 115 115 116 120 120 121 122 122 122 123 125 125 126 126 126 128 128 129 131 132 132 135 135 137 138 140 141 144 144 17.7 Tags seeking confirmation 17.8 Rhetorical questions 18 Subject and predicate; topic and comment 18.1 Dual patterning of sentence structures 18.2 Subject-predicate sentences 18.3 Topic-comment sentences 18.3.1 Further ways to form topic-comment sentences 18.4 Topic I subject-predicate sentences 18.4.1 Notional passive sentences 18.5 Subject I topic-comment sentences 19 Prepositions and coverbs 19.1 Coverbs 19.1.1 Coverbs of place and time 19.1.2 Coverbs of methods and means 19.1.3 Coverbs of human exchange and service 19.1.4 Coverbs of reference 19.1.5 Coverbs and comparison 19.2 Disyllabic prepositions 20 Bã and bèi constructions 20.1 The bâ construction 20.1.1 The ba construction and complements 20.1.2 Le and zhe as complements in bâ sentences 20.1.3 Ba and resultative complements 20.1.4 Nòng and Gao in bâ sentences 20.1.5 Negative bâ sentences 20.1.6 Bâ and modal verbs 20.1.7 Bâ and indefinite reference 20.2 The bèi construction 20.2.1 Ràng and jiào 20.2.2 The bèi construction with an agent 20.2.3 Negative bèi sentences 20.3 The bèi construction versus the notional passives 21 Serial constructions 21.1 General features of serial constructions 21.2 Semantic varieties in serial constructions 21.3 Adjectives or state verbs in serial constructions 21.4 Dative constructions 21.5 Causative constructions 21.5.1 Qing in a causative construction 21.5.2 Extended causative constructions 21.6 Extended serial constructions 145 145 146 146 146 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 153 155 156 157 157 157 159 159 161 162 162 162 163 163 163 164 165 165 165 166 166 166 167 170 170 170 172 173 173 22 Emphasis and the intensifier shì 22.1 Shì as an intensifier 22.2 The shì ... de construction 22.2.1 Subject and object emphasis in shì ... de sentences 22.2.2 Shì ... de construction and bù 22.3 Shì without de for progression and projection 22.3.1 Contexts for shì (without de) sentences 22.3.2 Shì and comparison 22.3.3 Shì and negation 22.4 Shì and topic-comment sentences 22.4.1 Shì implying reservation 22.4.2 `Verb/Adjective + shì + Verb/Adjective' implying reservation 22.5 Repetition and emphasis 23 Abbreviation and omission 23.1 Three types of abbreviation 23.2 Conventional abbreviations as subjectless sentences 23.3 Contextual abbreviation 23.4 Cotextual omissions 23.4.1 Cotextual omissions and headwords 23.4.2 Cotextual omissions in answers 23.4.3 Contextual/cotextual omissions in extended passages 24 Composite sentences: conjunctions and conjunctives 24.1 Types of composite sentence 24.2 Conjunctions and conjunctives 24.2.1 Meanings and functions of composite sentences 24.2.2 Paired conjunctives 24.3 Composite sentences as parallel structures 24.4 Verbs taking object clauses 25 Exclamations and interjections; appositions; and apostrophes 25.1 Exclamations 25.1.1 Exclamations with tài 25.1.2 Question-word questions as exclamations 25.2 Interjections 25.2.1 Tone variations in interjections 25.3 Appositions 25.4 Apostrophe 173 173 174 176 176 177 177 178 178 178 179 180 180 181 181 181 183 184 185 185 185 186 186 186 188 196 196 197 199 199 200 200 201 201 202 203 Part IV Paragraphs Introduction 26.1 A diary 26.2 A letter 26.3 A dialogue 26.4 A welcome speech 26.5 A description 26.6 An explanatory piece of writing 26.7 An argumentative piece of writing 205 205 206 209 212 215 217 219 222 226 231 Glossary of grammatical terms Index

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