Normal view MARC view

Strategic choices in science and technology: Korea in the era of a rising China

Author: Seong, Somi ; Popper, Steven W. Corporate author: Korea Institute of Science and Technology Evaluation and Planning Publisher: RAND, 2005.Language: EnglishDescription: 183 p. : Graphs ; 23 cm.ISBN: 0833037463Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references
Tags: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags.
Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print T49.5 .S46 2005
(Browse shelf)
001184997
Available 001184997
Total holds: 0

Includes bibliographical references

Digitized

Strategic Choices in Science and Technology Korea in the Era of a Rising China Contents Preface.......................................................................................................... iii Figures .......................................................................................................... xi Tables ..........................................................................................................xiii Summary....................................................................................................... xv Acknowledgments..................................................................................... xxxi Abbreviations ......................................................................................... xxxiii CHAPTER ONE Introduction................................................................................................... 1 Objective of the Study.................................................................................... 3 Approach......................................................................................................... 3 Scope of the Analysis..................................................................................... 4 Outline of the Report...................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER TWO Korea's Main Economic Concerns About a Rising China.......................... 7 Are China and Korea Competitive or Complementary? ............................... 7 Can the Mutually Beneficial Korea-China Trade Relationship Be Sustained in the Long Run? .................................................................. 9 Will Korea and China Be Increasingly Competitive in the Near Future? ................................................................................................ 12 Was Korea Squeezed Out of Markets in Industrialized Countries While Gaining Market Share in China? ........................................................ 16 Squeezed Out of the China Market? ........................................................... 20 Is Korea's Manufacturing Sector Being Hollowed Out? ............................ 21 vi Strategic Choices in Science and Technology: Korea in the Era of a Rising China The Threat May Have Been Covered Up by the Past Decade's World Economic Boom.................................................................................. 23 External Risk Factors: China's Overheated Economy................................. 25 Narrowing Technological Gap Between Korea and China......................... 26 CHAPTER THREE Current Technological Capability: SandT Indicators and Trends ............27 International Comparison of Technological Capabilities............................ 27 Country-Level Aggregate Indices of SandT Capabilities ......................... 28 Korea Is Currently Ahead of China in Aggregate SandT Capability........ 31 High RandD-to-GDP Ratio and High Gross Tertiary Science Enrollment Are the Major Contributors to Korea's High STCI Score................... 31 Limitations of Aggregate Indices............................................................ 33 On an Absolute Scale, China Is Ahead in RandD Investment and Human Resources................................................................................34 Major SandT Indicators for China..................................................................36 Rapid Growth in RandD Investment ......................................................... 36 Relatively Little Funding for Basic Research......................................... 38 Scientific Paper Publication Outperforms Basic Research Investment........................................................................................... 38 Some Studies Assert That China Is Already a "Research Powerhouse" .......................................................................................40 China Has an Absolute Advantage in Scientists and Engineers, and the Supply Is Abundant and Increasing........................................ 42 Success in Educational Reform Further Strengthens China's Human Resource Advantage............................................................... 43 Patent Data Show China Has Limited Invention Capabilities ................ 45 The Chinese Industrial Sector Is Not the Major Player in Invention-Type Patents........................................................................47 China Is Behind in Overseas Patent Activity ......................................... 47 Korea Is Relatively Strong in International Patent Activity ................... 49 The Increase in China's High-Tech Exports Is Mainly Due to Foreign-Invested Companies .............................................................. 52 Limited RandD Capability with Increasing Potential.................................... 54 Contents vii CHAPTER FOUR China's National Innovation System and RandD Strategies ..................... 55 China's National SandT Strategy.................................................................... 55 China's Core Development Strategy: "Rejuvenating the Nation Through Science and Education"........................................................ 56 SandT and Education Are the Two Pillars of China's Economic Development....................................................................................... 57 China's National Innovation System............................................................59 Main Actors and Institutional Arrangement of the Chinese NIS ........... 60 The Key Universities and the Chinese Academy of Science Are Major Knowledge Creators ................................................................ 60 The CAS As a Reformed Research Powerhouse.....................................62 Universities As Major RandD Performers................................................. 64 The Chinese Indigenous Industrial Sector Is a Relatively Weak Link in the NIS.................................................................................... 68 China's SandT Policy Governance Structure..................................................75 Hierarchical and Centralized .................................................................. 75 Comparison with Korea's New SandT Policy Governance ...................... 76 China Promotes RandD in a Few Focused Areas ..........................................77 Next-Generation Emerging Technologies in China: IT, Biotechnology, and New Materials .................................................... 78 Comparison with Korea's Focus on Future Technologies....................... 79 China's Major National RandD Programs...................................................... 79 The National Basic Research Program (973 Program) .......................... 81 The National High-Technology RandD Program (863 Program)..............82 The Torch Program.................................................................................. 84 Interaction with the Foreign Sector............................................................. 86 FDI Contributed Significantly to China's Economic Development ....... 86 Education and Training by Foreign Invested Enterprises (FIEs)............ 87 Technology Transfer from Foreign Sources: "Market for Technology" ....................................................................................... 88 RandD Centers of Foreign Multinational Corporations in China.............. 90 Setting Technology Standards: The Large Domestic Market As Leverage......................................................................................... 91 Overseas MandA Activities by Chinese Companies................................. 93 viii Strategic Choices in Science and Technology: Korea in the Era of a Rising China Global Network of Overseas Chinese..................................................... 95 Impact of Foreign Competition .............................................................. 96 A Stronger Industrial Sector with an Extensive Global Network............ 97 Evaluation of China's NIS and the Direction of Its Strategy....................... 97 CHAPTER FIVE Future Prospects and Options for Korea ....................................................... 101 Future Prospects for SandT Progress in Korea and China ............................ 102 Where Is Korea Positioned in the Technology Race? ........................... 102 How Does China Evaluate Its Global SandT Progress? .......................... 105 Future Prospects for the Technology Gap Between Korea and China........................................................................................... 106 How Is Korea Paving Its Way to the Future? ....................................... 108 How Is China Preparing for Future Emerging Technologies? ............. 111 Korea and China Are Similar in Their Preparations for the Future................................................................................................. 112 Options for Korea and Their Policy Implications ..................................... 112 Fortify Strengths in RandD Intensity but Obtain RandD Efficiency Too ...................................................................................113 The Government's Role in Future-Oriented Long-Term Research ........... 114 Next-Generation Technologies and Generic Technologies................... 114 From an IT-Focused Strategy to Diversification into Biotechnology and Nanotechnology.......................................................................... 115 Accelerate the Pace of SandT Progress Through More Active Global Networking ........................................................................................116 Should Korea Be More Engaged in the China Market? ............................ 117 Engaging with China and Taking Advantage of China's Strength ....... 117 How Much Should Korea Focus on the China Market? ....................... 117 Diversifying into Other Geographic Markets, Especially Advanced Countries with More Sophisticated Demand..................................... 118 Education for Creativity and Innovative Thinking..................................... 119 Reform the Formal Education System to Promote Creative Learning............................................................................................. 119 Develop Highly Qualified Scientists and Engineers by Supporting Broader Access to Higher Education ................................................ 119 Contents ix Education to Overcome the Dichotomy of Growth and Distribution........................................................................................120 Investment Beyond Production and Technology....................................... 121 Understanding the Uses of Technology and the Subtleties of Customers' Needs.............................................................................. 121 Selling Knowledge Versus Selling Commodities .................................122 Better Living Environments to Compete for, Maintain, and Recruit International Experts......................................................................... 123 Openness May Have to Be Korea's Strategy No Less Than China's .............................................................................................. 124 Summary of the Options and Their Linkage to the Next Chapter............. 125 CHAPTER SIX Future Scenarios.......................................................................................127 Using Scenarios Analytically..................................................................... 127 A Simple Model of Korea's National Economy.........................................129 The Role of China in Korea's Future..................................................... 129 The Need for Sustaining Technological Levels.....................................131 The Nature of the Korean Labor Force................................................. 133 Strategies and Scenarios.............................................................................134 Analytical Models and Policy over the Long Term................................ 134 Four "Strategies" for Korea .................................................................. 136 Analytical Results ..................................................................................... 139 Strategy Performance Under Different Assumptions............................139 Exploring the Implications of Uncertainty ........................................... 142 Toward Robust Strategies in the Face of Deep Uncertainty...................145 Challenges to Robustness and Characterizing Uncertainties ................ 149 Challenge Scenarios to Probe Robustness of Candidate Strategies .......................................................................................... 151 Discussion and Conclusions ......................................................................157 CHAPTER SEVEN Conclusion.................................................................................................159 Strategies for Korea .................................................................................. 161 Support RandD Intensity but Obtain RandD Efficiency Too.......................161 Engage with China.................................................................................. 161 x Strategic Choices in Science and Technology: Korea in the Era of a Rising China Reform Education ................................................................................. 162 Pursue Openness.................................................................................... 163 Future Scenarios ........................................................................................ 163 APPENDIX A. Additional Specifications for the Model of the Korean National Economy............................................................................................ 167 B. Major National SandT Programs in China: Objectives and Resources.... 169 References.................................................................................................. 175

There are no comments for this item.

Log in to your account to post a comment.
Koha 18.11 - INSEAD Catalogue
Home | Contact Us | What's Koha?