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Trust and reputation for service-oriented environments: technologies for building business intelligence and consumer confidence

Author: Chang, Elizabeth ; Dillon, Tharam ; Hussain, Farookh K.Publisher: Wiley, 2006.Language: EnglishDescription: 349 p. : Graphs ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0470015470Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Asia Campus
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Print HF5415.55 .C43 2006
(Browse shelf)
900192682
Available 900192682
Book Europe Campus
Main Collection
Print HF5415.55 .C43 2006
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001173305
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Trust and Reputation for Service-Oriented Environments Technologies for building business intelligence and consumer confidence Contents Preface Author Introduction Acknowledgement 1 Trust and Security in Service-oriented Environments 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Why Trust? 1.3 Trust and Security 1.3.1 Security 1.3.2 Trust 1.3.3 Trust in Security Context 1.3.4 Trust in the Business Context 1.4 Service-oriented Environment 1.4.1 Environment 1.4.2 Essential Elements in the Technology-based Environment 1.4.3 Service-oriented Environment 1.4.4 Issues in Service-oriented Environments 1.5 Agents in Service-oriented Environments 1.5.1 Agents in Service-oriented Environments 1.5.2 Sellers 1.5.3 Buyers 1.5.4 Users 1.5.5 Websites 1.6 Business in a Service-oriented Environment 1.6.1 Products 1.6.2 Services 1.6.3 Quality of Goods 1.6.4 Quality of Service 1.6.5 Quality of Goods Measure 1.6.6 Quality of Service Measure 1.7 Infrastructure in Service-oriented Environments 1.7.1 Client­Server Network 1.7.2 Peer-to-Peer Network (P2P Network) 1.7.3 Grid Network 1.7.4 Ad hoc Network 1.7.5 Mobile Network 1.8 Technology in Service-oriented Environments 1.8.1 Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) 1.8.2 Web Service 1.8.3 Web Service as Software Technology 1.8.4 Web Service as a Business Solution xvii xxi xxiii 1 1 1 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 17 18 vi Contents 1.9 Trust in Service-oriented Environments 1.10 Chapter Summary References 2 Trust Concepts and Trust Model 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Trust Environments 2.2.1 The Physical Trust Environment 2.2.2 The Virtual Trust Environment 2.3 Trust Definitions in Literature 2.3.1 Trust Definition in Sociology, Psychology, Business and Law 2.3.2 Trust Definition in Computing 2.4 Advanced Trust Concepts 2.4.1 Trust 2.4.2 Trusting Agent and Trusted Agent 2.4.3 Belief 2.4.4 Context 2.4.5 Willingness 2.4.6 Capability 2.4.7 Time Space, Time Slot and Time Spot 2.4.8 Delivery 2.4.9 Mutually Agreed Service 2.5 Trust Relationships 2.5.1 Trust Relationships and Trust Values 2.5.2 Unidirection in Trust Relationship 2.5.3 Multi-Context, Multi-Trust, Multi-Relationships 2.6 Trust Relationship Diagram 2.6.1 Many-Many-to-One Trust Relationship 2.6.2 Contexts and Time slots 2.7 Trust Attributes and Methods 2.7.1 Trust Attributes 2.7.2 Values for Trust Attributes 2.7.3 Trust Methods 2.8 Initiation of the Relationship 2.8.1 Initiation 2.8.2 Direct Interaction 2.8.3 Recommendation 2.8.4 History Review 2.8.5 Initiation of the Relationship and Notations 2.9 The Trust Model 2.9.1 Existing Trust Models 2.9.2 Trust Model and Trust-based Decision 2.9.3 New Trust Models 2.10 Chapter Summary References 3 Trustworthiness 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Trustworthiness in Literature 3.2.1 Existing Definitions of Trustworthiness 22 23 23 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 29 30 30 32 32 33 33 33 34 35 35 36 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 43 45 45 45 45 Contents vii 'N 3.2.2 Existing Trustworthiness Scales 3.3 Advanced Trustworthiness Definition 3.3.1 Trustworthiness 3.3.2 A Measure 3.3.3 The Level of Trust 3.3.4 Quantifies the Trust Values 3.3.5 Trustworthiness Scale 3.4 Seven Levels of the Trustworthiness 3.4.1 Seven Trustworthiness Levels 3.4.2 Semantics or Linguistic Representations 3.4.3 Ordinal Scale 3.4.4 Percentage Interval Scale 3.4.5 Trustworthiness Value 3.4.6 Postulates 3.4.7 Star Rating System 3.4.8 QoS Rating 3.4.9 Trust Rating, Positive and Negative Trust 3.5 Semantics Representation and Postulates for Trustworthiness Levels 3.5.1 Level-1: Unknown Trustworthiness 3.5.2 Level 0: Very Untrustworthy 3.5.3 Level 1: Untrustworthy 3.5.4 Level 2: Partially Trustworthy 3.5.5 Level 3: Largely Trustworthy 3.5.6 Level 4: Trustworthy 3.5.7 Level 5: Very Trustworthy 3.6 Trustworthiness Measure and Prediction 3.6.1 Trustworthiness Measure 3.6.2 Trustworthiness Prediction 3.7 Challenges in Trustworthiness Measure and Prediction 3.8 Chapter Summary References 4 Trust Ontology for Service-Oriented Environment 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Ontology 4.2.1 What is an Ontology 4.2.2 Generic Ontologies and Specific Ontologies 4.2.3 Notation System used for Ontology Representation 4.2.4 Summary of Ontology Notation 4.3 Hierarchy of Trust Concepts 4.3.1 Trust Concept 4.3.2 Hierarchy of Trust Concepts 4.4 Hierarchy of Agents, Service and Product Concepts 4.4.1 Agent Concept Hierarchy 4.4.2 Service Concept Hierarchy 4.4.3 Product Concept Hierarchy 4.5 Hierarchy of Context and Association with Quality Assessment Criteria 4.5.1 Example of the Context 4.5.2 Hierarchy of Context, Quality Aspects and Quality Assessment criteria 45 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 52 52 52 52 54 54 55 56 56 57 58 58 59 59 61 62 65 65 66 66 66 67 70 71 71 71 71 72 73 73 74 74 74 viii Contents 4.5.3 Definition of the Context 4.5.4 Definition of the Quality Aspects 4.5.5 Definition of the Quality Assessment Criteria 4.5.6 Examples Context, Quality Aspects and Quality Assessment Criteria 4.6 Agent Trust Ontology 4.6.1 Challenges in Agent Trust 4.6.2 Choice of Agents 4.6.3 Generic Agent Trust Ontology 4.6.4 Specific Agent Trust Ontology ­ Service Provider Trust 4.6.5 Specific Agent Trust Ontology ­ Websites Trust 4.6.6 Specific Agent Trust Ontology ­ Reviewer Trust 4.6.7 Specific Agent Trust Ontology ­ Member Trust 4.7 Service Trust Ontology 4.7.1 Key Issues in Service Trust 4.7.2 Choice of Services 4.7.3 Generic Service Trust Ontology 4.7.4 Specific Service Trust Ontology ­ Sales Trust 4.7.5 Specific Service Trust Ontology ­ Telecommunication Service Trust 4.7.6 Specific Service Trust Ontology ­ E-Logistics Trust 4.7.7 Specific Service Trust Ontology ­ E-Warehouse Trust 4.7.8 Specific Service Trust Ontology ­ E-Education Trust 4.7.9 Specific Service Trust Ontology ­ Review or Opinion Trust 4.8 Product Trust Ontology 4.8.1 Evaluation of the Product Quality 4.8.2 Choice of Products 4.8.3 Generic Product Trust Ontology 4.8.4 Specific Product Trust Ontology ­ Entertainment Product Trust 4.8.5 Specific Product Trust Ontology ­ Information Product Trust 4.9 Trust Databases 4.9.1 Agent Trust Database 4.9.2 Trust Database for Quality of Service 4.9.3 Trust Database for QoP 4.10 Summary References 75 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 79 80 81 83 84 84 85 86 87 88 90 91 93 95 96 97 97 97 99 100 102 102 104 105 106 107 5 The Fuzzy and Dynamic Nature of Trust 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Existing Literature 5.3 Fuzzy and Dynamic Characteristics of Trust 5.3.1 Implicitness 5.3.2 Asymmetry 5.3.3 Transitiveness 5.3.4 Antonymy 5.3.5 Asynchrony 5.3.6 Gravity 5.4 Endogenous and Exogenous Characteristics of Agents 5.4.1 Internal Factors of Trusted Agents 5.4.2 Psychological Factors of the Trusting Agent 5.4.3 Endogenous Factors of Agent 109 109 110 110 110 112 113 115 116 118 118 118 119 121 Contents ix 5.4.4 Exogenous Factors of Agent 5.5 Reasoning the Fuzziness and Dynamism 5.5.1 Fuzzy and Dynamic Characteristics in the Trust Model 5.5.2 Endogenous and Exogenous Characteristics in the Trust Model 5.5.3 Reasons for Fuzziness and Dynamism 5.6 Managing the Fuzziness of Trust 5.6.1 Measuring the Service Quality 5.6.2 Measuring the Product Quality 5.7 Managing the Dynamism of Trust 5.7.1 Dynamism of Trust in Time Space 5.7.2 Managing the Trust Dynamism 5.7.3 Correlation Agent Quality Aspects of the Context 5.7.4 Strategies for Trust Measurement and Prediction 5.8 Summary References 6 Trustworthiness Measure with CCCI 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Trustworthiness Measure Methodology 6.2.1 Conceptual Framework for Measurement of Quality and Trust 6.2.2 Step 1 -- Define the Context Domain and Obtain Expert Knowledge 6.2.3 Step 2 -- Identify the Quality Aspects 6.2.4 Step 3 -- Develop the Quality Assessment Criteria 6.2.5 Step 4 -- Measure the Quality or Trust with CCCI Metrics 6.3 CCCI Metrics 6.3.1 Correlation of Defined Qualities 6.3.2 Commitment to the Criterion 6.3.3 Clarity of the Criterion 6.3.4 Influence of a Criterion 6.4 The Commitment to the Criterion -- Commit criterion 6.4.1 Definition 6.4.2 Description 6.4.3 Application of the Metric 6.4.4 Seven Levels of Commit criterionand Values 6.4.5 Maximum Value and Relative Value 6.4.6 Example 6.5 Clarity of a Criterion -- Clearcriterion 6.5.1 Definition 6.5.2 Description 6.5.3 Application of the Metric 6.5.4 Seven Levels of Clearcriterion and Values 6.5.5 Maximum Value and Relative Value 6.5.6 Example 6.6 Influence of a Criterion -- Infcriterion 6.6.1 Definition 6.6.2 Description 6.6.3 Application of the Metric 6.6.4 Values of Infcriterion 6.6.5 Maximum Value and Relative Value 121 122 122 123 123 126 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 128 130 131 131 131 132 134 135 136 136 137 137 137 138 139 140 140 140 140 140 141 142 142 142 142 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 x Contents 6.6.6 Example Correlation of Defined Quality ­ Corrqualitities 6.7.1 Definition 6.7.2 Description 6.7.3 The Correlation Metric 6.7.4 Values of Corrqualities 6.7.5 Maximum Value and Relative Value 6.7.6 Example 6.8 Trustworthiness Values and Corrqualities 6.8.1 Derivation of Trustworthiness Values 6.8.2 Example 6.9 Summary 6.7 7 Trustworthiness Systems 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Amazon's Trustworthiness Systems 7.2.1 Trustworthiness of Transaction Partners 7.2.2 Trustworthiness of the Products 7.2.3 Rating of Customer Reviews 7.3 Yahoo's Trustworthiness Systems 7.3.1 Trustworthiness of Merchants 7.3.2 Rating User Reviews 7.3.3 Rating Quality of Products 7.4 Epinions.com's Trustworthiness System 7.4.1 Trustworthiness of Stores 7.4.2 Trustworthiness of Reviewers 7.4.3 Trustworthiness of Reviews 7.4.4 Rating Products 7.5 eBay.com's Trustworthiness Systems 7.5.1 Trustworthiness of an eBay Member 7.6 BizRate.com's Trustworthiness Systems 7.6.1 Trustworthiness of Merchants 7.6.2 Rating Products 7.6.3 Rating Reviews 7.7 CNet.com's Trustworthiness Systems 7.7.1 Trustworthiness of Merchants 7.7.2 Store Rating Criteria 7.7.3 Rating Products 7.7.4 Rating Reviews 7.8 Review of Trustworthiness Systems 7.8.1 Commonality of Functions of Trustworthiness Systems 7.8.2 Review of Existing Trustworthiness Measurement 7.8.3 Weakness of Existing Trustworthiness Measures 7.9 CCCI for Trustworthiness of E-service 7.9.1 Example of Logistics Network Service 7.9.2 Application of CCCI 7.9.3 Define the Criteria 7.9.4 Importance of Criterion (Infcriterion) 7.9.5 Clarity of Criterion (Clearcricerion) 146 148 148 148 148 149 150 150 151 151 152 153 155 155 155 155 156 157 158 158 159 160 161 161 162 164 164 165 165 167 167 168 169 169 170 171 171 172 173 173 173 175 175 175 177 178 178 179 Contents xi 7.9.6 Correlation of the Criterion 7.9.7 Exceptions 7.10 Summary References 8 Reputation Concepts and the Reputation Model 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Reputation in Literature 8.3 Advanced Reputation Concepts 8.3.1 Reputation 8.3.2 Third-party Recommendation Agents 8.3.3 Reputation Query 8.3.4 Trusting Agent in a Reputation 8.3.5 Trusted Agent in a Reputation 8.3.6 First-, Second- and Third-hand Opinions 8.3.7 Trustworthiness of Opinion or Witness Trustworthiness Value (WTV) 8.3.8 Quality of Agent, Product or Services 8.4 Reputation Relationship 8.4.1 Definition of the Reputation Relationship 8.4.2 Agents in the Reputation Relationship 8.4.3 The Inner Relationships within Reputation Relationship 8.4.4 Three Agents and Three Inner Relationships 8.5 Recommendation Trust Relationship 8.5.1 Definition 8.5.2 Recommendation Trust Relationship Diagram 8.5.3 The Difference between Trust and Recommendation Relationship 8.5.4 Trustworthiness Value for Recommendation Agent 8.6 Third-party Trust Relationship 8.6.1 Definition 8.6.2 Third-party Trust Relationship Diagram 8.6.3 The Difference between Trust and Recommendation Relationship 8.6.4 Third-party Trust and Recommendation 8.7 Reputation Query Relationship 8.7.1 Definition 8.7.2 Reputation Query Relationship 8.7.3 The Difference between Trust and Reputation Query Relationship 8.8 Trustworthiness of Third-party Recommendation Agents 8.8.1 Four Types of Third-party Agents 8.8.2 Eligibility to be a Recommendation Agent 8.8.3 Known Agent as a Recommendation Agent 8.8.4 Dual Relationships Associated With a Known Agent 8.8.5 Referred Agent as a Recommendation Agent 8.8.6 Unknown Recommendation Agents 8.8.7 Malicious Agents 8.8.8 Untrusted Agents 8.8.9 Coalition and Collusion 8.8.10 Trustworthiness of the Recommendation Agent 8.9 Trustworthiness of the Opinion 8.9.1 Credibility in Giving a Correct Opinion 8.9.2 Determining the Trustworthiness of Opinion 180 180 181 182 183 183 184 184 184 186 186 187 188 188 190 190 191 191 192 193 193 194 194 195 196 197 197 197 197 198 199 199 199 200 201 202 202 203 203 204 206 207 208 208 209 209 209 210 211 xii Contents 8.9.3 Dual Relationships 8.9.4 Recommendation Time Consideration 8.9.5 Utilize Recommendation History 8.9.6 Scientific Methods 8.9.7 Aggregation of Recommendation to Generate Reputation Value 8.9.8 The Aggregation Within the Time slot 8.9.9 Updating the Trustworthiness of the Recommendation Agent 8.9.10 Process of Reassigning the Trustworthiness of Opinion to the Recommendation Agent 8.10 Reputation Model and Reputation Relationship Diagrams 8.10.1 High-level View of Reputation Relationship Model 8.10.2 Full Entity View in Reputation Relationship 8.10.3 Attribute-level View of Reputation Relationship 8.10.4 Dual relationship View in Reputation 8.11 Conclusion References 9 Reputation Ontology 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Reputation Ontology 9.2.1 High-level Reputation Ontology 9.2.2 The Ontological View of Reputation Query 9.2.3 The Ontological View of Recommendation Agent Trust 9.2.4 The Ontological View of Third-party Trust 9.3 Basic and Advanced Reputation Ontology 9.3.1 Basic Reputation Ontology 9.3.2 Advanced Reputation Ontology 9.3.3 Issues with Basic Reputation 9.4 Trustworthiness of Opinion Ontology 9.4.1 Opinions in Reputation 9.4.2 Ontology for Trustworthiness of Opinion 9.4.3 Validation of the Opinion during the Calculation of Reputation 9.4.4 Validation and Adjustment of the Trustworthiness of Opinion after Reputation 9.5 Ontology for Reputation of an Agent 9.5.1 Ontology for Reputation of an Agent 9.5.2 Conceptual View of the Ontology for Reputation of Agent 9.6 Ontology for Reputation of Service 9.6.1 Ontology for Reputation of a Service 9.6.2 Conceptual View of the Ontology for Reputation of a Service 9.7 Ontology for Reputation of a Product 9.7.1 Ontology for Reputation of Product 9.7.2 Conceptual View of the Ontology for Reputation of a Product 9.8 Reputation Databases 9.8.1 Reputation Database 9.8.2 Reputation Query Database 9.8.3 Recommendation Database 9.8.4 Recommendation Trust Database 9.8.5 Recommendation Agent's Data 211 211 212 212 213 213 214 214 214 215 216 216 216 218 218 221 221 221 222 223 226 226 227 227 227 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 231 231 232 232 232 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 235 235 Contents xiii 9.9 Seven Levels of Reputation Measurement 9.9.1 Trustworthiness of the Recommendation Agents in Giving the Correct Opinion 9.9.2 Seven Levels of Reputation for Trusted Agents 9.9.3 The Semantics of Reputation Levels 9.9.4 Seven Levels of Reputation for Quality of Services and Product 9.9.5 Seven Levels of Trustworthiness for Recommendation Agents 9.9.6 Seven Levels of Trustworthiness of the Opinion 9.9.7 Reputation Levels and Trustworthiness Levels 9.10 The Fuzzy Nature of Reputation 9.10.1 Doubtfulness 9.10.2 Diversity in Opinions 9.10.3 Endogenous Factors 9.10.4 Malicious 9.11 The Dynamic Nature of Reputation 9.11.1 Longevity 9.11.2 Stability 9.11.3 Irregularity 9.11.4 Abruptness 9.11.5 Anomalies 9.11.6 Managing the Dynamism of Reputation 9.12 Conclusion References 10 Reputation Calculation Methodologies 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Methods for Synthesising the Reputation from Recommendations 10.3 Factors and Features that need to be Considered 10.3.1 Trustworthiness of Agent: Intentional Error 10.3.2 Trustworthiness of Opinion 10.3.3 Time Variability and Context 10.3.4 Aggregation of the Reputation for Component Services 10.4 Deterministic Approach to Reputation Calculation 10.4.1 Factors used for the Reputation Measure 10.4.2 Aggregation 10.4.3 Including Group Values 10.5 Adjusting the Trustworthiness of Opinions 10.5.1 Example 10.6 Bayesian Approach 10.6.1 Bayesian Model 10.6.2 Bayes Model for Interacting Agents 10.6.3 Bayes Trustworthiness Measure 10.6.4 Bayes Reputation Measure 10.6.5 Bayes Approach for Trustworthiness Calculation with Multiple Criteria 10.6.6 Evaluation of the Bayesian Approach 10.7 Fuzzy System Approach 10.7.1 Fuzzy Representation of Factors 10.7.2 Fuzzy Inference System for Determination of Reputation Measure 235 235 235 237 238 239 239 240 240 240 241 241 242 242 242 243 243 243 243 244 244 245 247 247 248 248 248 248 249 250 250 250 251 251 252 253 256 256 257 257 258 259 259 260 260 261 xiv Contents 10.7.3 Takagi­Sugeno Inference Approach 10.7.4 Fuzzy Rule Base for the Reputation Problem 10.7.5 Calculation of Reputation 10.7.6 Tuning Parameters and Trustworthiness of Opinion Adjustment 10.8 Summary References 11 Reputation Systems 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Reshaping e-Business with Reputation Technology 11.2.1 The Issues 11.2.2 Reputation Technology 11.3 Trust and Reputation Systems versus Recommendation Systems 11.3.1 Reputation and Recommendation Systems for Business Intelligence 11.3.2 Recommendation Systems 11.3.3 Reputation Systems 11.4 BizRate.com 11.4.1 Reputation Rating of Products 11.4.2 Reputation Rating Merchants 11.4.3 Reputation Algorithm 11.5 Elance.com 11.5.1 Reputation Rating of Service Provider and Buyer 11.5.2 Reputation Algorithm 11.6 Alibris.com 11.6.1 Reputation Rating Merchants 11.6.2 Reputation Rating of Products 11.7 MoneyControl.com 11.7.1 Reputation Rating of Opinions 11.7.2 Reputation Algorithm 11.7.3 Reputation Rating of Reviewers 11.8 Yahoo.com 11.8.1 Reputation Rating of Products 11.8.2 Reputation Rating for Merchants 11.8.3 Reputation Algorithms 11.9 Epinions.com 11.9.1 Reputation Rating of Products 11.9.2 Reputation Algorithms 11.9.3 Reputation Rating Merchants 11.10 eBay.com 11.10.1 Reputation Rating Members (Both Buyers and Sellers) 11.10.2 Reputation Algorithms 11.11 CNET.com 11.11.1 Reputation Rating of Products 11.11.2 Reputation Algorithm 11.11.3 Reputation Rating Merchants 11.11.4 Reputation Algorithm 11.12 MovieLens Recommendation Systems 11.12.1 Recommendation of Products 11.13 Review of Reputation Systems 262 262 263 263 264 264 265 265 265 265 266 267 267 267 268 268 268 269 270 270 271 271 272 272 273 273 273 275 275 275 275 276 276 277 277 278 278 278 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 283 284 284 Contents xv 11.14 Summary References WEBSITES 12 Trust and Reputation Prediction 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Considerations in Trustworthiness Prediction 12.2.1 Recency is Important 12.2.2 Understanding Trend is Important 12.2.3 Detecting Cyclical Fraud or Cyclical Poor Performance is Important 12.2.4 Variability in Trustworthiness 12.2.5 Initiation, Trustworthiness Measure and Prediction 12.3 Example ­ Logistics Service 12.3.1 Single Interaction Scenario, Calculation of a Trustworthiness Measure 12.3.2 Trustworthiness Measure Formulae 12.3.3 Trustworthiness Measure for the Example 12.3.4 Multiple Interaction History Scenario 12.4 Prediction Methods 12.5 Exponential Smoothing 12.5.1 No Trend, No Seasonality 12.5.2 With Trend Factor but no Seasonality 12.5.3 With Trend and Seasonality 12.6 Markov Approach Plus Trend and Seasonality 12.6.1 Deterministic Components 12.6.2 Trend Component Analysis 12.6.3 Seasonal Component Analysis 12.6.4 Stochastic Component Analysis 12.6.5 Markov Chain of Finite States 12.6.6 Markov Model in Reputation Prediction 12.6.7 Markov Chain for R 12.6.8 Constructing Current State Vector C 12.6.9 Constructing Markov Matrix 12.7 Rejustification of Third-Party Recommender's Trust Value 12.8 Summary References 13 Trust and Reputation Modeling 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Significance of Pictorial Modeling 13.3 Notation Systems 13.3.1 Notations for Representing Different Types of Agents 13.3.2 Relationship Notations 13.3.3 Initiation Relationship Notations 13.3.4 Notation for Agent Properties 13.3.5 Tuple Notation and Presentation Rules 13.3.6 The Trust Case Notation 13.4 Trust Relationship Diagrams 13.4.1 Trust Relationship Modeling 13.4.2 Higher-level and Lower-level Trust Relationship Modeling 285 285 285 287 287 287 288 288 290 290 290 292 292 293 294 296 297 298 298 300 301 302 303 303 303 303 304 304 305 305 305 306 307 307 309 309 309 311 311 311 311 312 312 314 314 314 315 xvi Contents 13.5 Trust Case Diagrams 13.5.1 Single Trust Case Diagram 13.5.2 Modeling a Trusting Agent that has Multiple Trust Cases with Multiple Trusted Agents 13.5.3 Modeling Multiple Trust Cases between Same Agents 13.5.4 Modeling Multiagent Trust Cases 13.6 Trust Class Diagrams 13.6.1 Trust Class Diagram 13.6.2 Single trust Class Diagram 13.6.3 Multiple trust Class Diagram 13.6.4 Multiagents and Multitrust Class Diagram 13.6.5 Modeling Multiagent Trust Relationships 13.7 Trust Transition Diagrams 13.7.1 Trust State and Trust Transition 13.7.2 Syntactic Modification of Trust Tuple 13.7.3 Modeling the Dynamics of Trust 13.8 Conclusion References 14 The Vision of Trust and Reputation Technology 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Business Intelligence 14.2.1 The Classical Definition of BI 14.2.2 The Advanced Definition of BI 14.2.3 40 years of BI Development 14.3 Traditional IT and New-age Digital Ecosystems and Technology 14.3.1 Enabled Push and Pull Systems and Technologies 14.3.2 Digital Ecosystems and Technologies 14.4 Trust and Reputation ­ An example of Digital Ecosystem and Technology 14.4.1 A Science and an Art 14.4.2 BI and Consumer Confidence 14.4.3 Other Areas of Applications 14.5 Future Research and Development 14.5.1 Data Adequacy and Accountability 14.5.2 Maintaining the Trust 14.5.3 Computational Strength and Performance 14.5.4 Ontology Drive and Agent-based System 14.5.5 Data Mining Capability 14.5.6 Data and Information Security 14.5.7 Integration with Existing Systems 14.6 The Vision and Conclusion References Index 316 316 317 318 319 321 321 322 323 324 325 327 327 328 330 330 331 333 333 333 334 334 335 336 336 337 338 338 340 341 342 342 342 342 342 343 343 343 343 344 345

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