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Quality planning and analysis: from product development through usage

Author: Juran, J. M. ; Gryna, Frank M.Publisher: McGraw-Hill, 1970.Language: EnglishDescription: 684 p. : Graphs ; 23 cm.Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print TS156 .J86 1970
(Browse shelf)
000263891
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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Quality Planning and Analysis From Product Development through Usage Contents Preface 1 1 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 11 11 13 1 BASIC CONCEPTS; DEF1NITIONS; TERMINOLOGY 1-1 The Quality Function 1-2 The Meanings of "Quality" 1-3 The Meanings of "Control" 1-4 The Meanings of "Quality Control" 1-5 Concepts and Terminology 1-6 Products and Services 1-7 Quality Characteristic 1-8 Quality of Design Distinguished from Quality of Conformance 1-9 Quality, Price, and Delivery 1-10 Sporadic and Chronic Defects 1-11 Quality Improvement 1-12 The Concept of Self-control 1-13 The Factual Approach 2 HISTORY OF QUALITY CONTROL 2-1 Primitive Man and Quality 2-2 Early Manufacture; the Temple City 2-3 The Growth of Commerce; the Guilds and Quality 2-4 The Industrial Revolution 17 17 18 19 20 2-5 Mass Production and Quality 2-6 Complex Systems and Quality 2-7 Human Welfare and Quality 2-8 Emerging Concepts: Reliability, Maintainability 20 21 22 23 3 QUALITY POLICY AND OBJECTIVES 3-1 The Content and Sequence of Administration 3-2 Establishing Quality Policies 3-3 Industrial Quality Objectives 3.4 Securing Unity as to Quality Objectives 3-5 Planning to Meet Quality Objectives 3-6 Managerial and Technological Quality Activities 27 27 28 30 32 33 35 4 ECONOMICS OF QUALITY 4-1 Quality and the Basic Business Mission 4-2 Balance between Cost of Quality and Value of Quality 4-3 Economics of Quality of Design 44 Competition in Quality 4-5 Product Design as a Means for Competition in Quality 4-6 Knowledge of Market Quality as a Means for Competition in Quality 4-7 Costs of Quality 4-8 Economics of Quality of Conformance 4-9 Economics of Quality as Viewed by Customers 37 37 38 38 41 42 44 46 47 47 5 MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF QUALITY COSTS 5-1 Why Measure Quality Costs? 5-2 Defining the Activities and Deeds 5-3 Determining the Costs 54 Interpreting Quality Costs 5-5 Maldistribution of Quality Losses: The Pareto Principle 5-6 The Scoreboard on Quality Costs 54 54 54 56 59 62 65 6 BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPT OF VARIATION 6-1 Statistics as a Science 6-2 The Concept of Variation 6-3 Distinction between Variables and Attributes Data 6-4 Tabular Method of Summarizing Data: The Frequency Distribution 6-5 Graphical Summarization of Data: The Histogram 6-6 Quantitative Methods of Summarizing Data: Numerical Indices 6-7 The "Normal" Probability Distribution 6-8 The Exponential Probability Distribution 6-9 The Weibull Probability Distribution 70 70 70 71 71 74 74 78 81 82 7 ORGANIZATION FOR QUALITY 7-1 The Nature of Organization 7-2 Top-management Responsibility for Organization 7-3 Evolution of Organization for Quality 7-4 Organization Forms in the Process Industries 7-5 Organization Forms in the Larger Companies 7-6 Organization for Acceptance 7-7 Responsibilities of the Chief Inspector 7-8 Organizing for Prevention 7-9 Organization for Coordination 7-10 Coordination through the Common Boss 7-11 Self-coordination 7-12 Coordination through Written Procedure 7-13 Coordination through Staff Specialists 7-14 Coordination through Staff Departments 7-15 Coordination through Joint Committees 7-16 Responsibilities of the Quality Manager 91 91 91 92 97 98 99 101 101 103 104 105 105 106 107 107 109 8 DESIGN FOR SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS 8-1 The Life Cycle of a Product 8-2 System Effectiveness Concept 8-3 Example of System Effectiveness 8-4 Use of a System Effectiveness Model in Design 8-5 Relation of System Effectiveness to Cost and Schedule 114 114 117 119 127 128 9 RELIABILITY, MAINTAINABILITY 9-1 The Main Concepts 9-2 The "Gold in the Mine" for Reliability and Maintainability 9-3 Elements of a Typical Reliability Program 9-4 Setting Overall Reliability Goals 9-5 Reliability Apportionment and Reliability Prediction 9-6 Stages of Reliability Prediction 9-7 Design Reviews 9-8 Critical Components Program 9-9 Failure Mode/Failure Effect Analysis 9-10 Reliability Testing 9-11 Methods for Improving Design Reliability 9-12 Corrective Action System 9-13 Organizing for Reliability: General 9-14 Organization Forms in the High Reliability Industries 9-15 Maintainability 9-16 Quantification of Maintainability 9-17 Tradeoffs among Parameters 9-18 Organization for Maintainability 130 130 131 132 135 136 139 141 143 144 148 150 152 154 156 158 159 162 163 10 STATISTICAL AIDS TO RELIABILITY 10-1 Failure Patterns for Complex Products 10-2 The Exponential Formula for Reliability 10S The Relationship between Part and System Reliability 10-4 Predicting Reliability during Design Based on the Exponential Distribution 10-5 Predicting Reliability during Design Based on the Weibull Distribution 10-6 Redundancy 10-7 Reliability as a Function of Applied Stress and Strength 10-8 Availability 169 169 171 174 176 180 181 183 185 11 STATISTICAL AIDS FOR PLANNING AND ANALYZING TESTS 11-1 Problems of Prototype and Pilot Run Tests 11-2 Concept of Statistical Inference 191 191 191 11-3 The Two Types of Sampling Error 11-4 The Use of the Operating Characteristic Curve in Selecting an Acceptance Region 11-5 Specific Tests of Hypotheses 11-6 What the Test of Hypothesis Does Not Tell 11-7 Size of Sample for Tests of Hypotheses 11-8 Statistical Estimation: Confidence Limits 11-9 Importance of Confidence Limits in Planning Test Programs 11-10 Determination of the Sample Size Required to Achieve a Specified Precision in an Estimate 11-11 Use of Prior Information in Planning Tests 11-12 The Design of Experiments 11-13 Analysis of a Designed Experiment: The Analysis of Variance 195 199 201 207 208 210 214 214 215 218 220 12 QUALITY SPECIFICATIONS 12-1 Purpose and Content of Quality Specifications 12-2 The Scientific Approach to Tolerancing 12-3 Functional and Nonfunctional Requirements 12-4 Classification of Characteristics 12-5 Facts on the Costs of Precision 12-6 Facts on the Value of Precision 12-7 Tolerances for Interchangeability 12-8 Special Problems of Specification of Complex Products 12-9 Standardization in Specification 12-10 Jurisdiction in Product Specifications 12-11 Cultural Patterns in the Design Department 232 232 234 234 236 237 238 240 241 244 245 247 13 STATISTICAL AIDS IN LIMITS AND TOLERANCES 13-1 The Problems 13-2 Quantifying Conditions of Use and Design Capability 13-3 Analyzing Process Data to Set Limits on Discrete Components or Parts 13-4 Setting Tolerance Limits for Coalesced Products 13-5 Tolerance Limits for Interacting Dimensions 13-6 Assumptions of the Formula 13-7 Setting Limits for Sensory Qualities 249 249 250 253 256 257 281 263 14 MANUFACTURING PLANNING FOR QUALITY 14-1 Quality Aspects of Planning for Manufacture 14-2 Basic Approaches to Quality Planning 14-3 Planning through Analysis 14-4 Planning through Trial Lots 14-5 Choice of Machines, Processes, and Tools 14-6 Planning the Flow of Information 14-7 Planning for Process Control 14-8 Responsibility Patterns for Process Control 14-9 Production Department Needs for Process Control 14-10 Special Process Control Activities 14-11 Process Surveillance 14-12 Automation and Quality Planning 270 270 271 272 273 274 276 276 280 282 285 286 287 15 STATISTICAL TOOLS IN MANUFACTURING PLANNING 15-1 The Role of Statistical Tools in Manufacturing Planning 15-2 Process Capability Analysis with Simple Charts 15-3 Control Chart Concept 15-4 Establishing Trial Control Limits: X and R Charts 15-5 Determination of Process Capability from a Control Chart Analysis 15-6 The Assumption of Statistical Control and Its Effect on Process Capability 15-7 Relation of Control Limits to Product Tolerances 15-8 Illustration of the Use of Process Capability Data in Manufacturing Planning 293 293 293 296 298 299 304 305 305 16 INSPECTION 16-1 The Importance of Inspection 16-2 Inspection Planning 16-3 Measuring Performance of Inspection 16-4 Incentives for Inspectors 16-5 Accuracy of Inspection 16-6 Evaluating the Accuracy of Inspectors 309 309 310 316 318 319 321 16-7 Improvement of Inspector Accuracy 16-8 Budgeting for Inspection 16-9 Approaches to Cost Reduction 323 326 329 17 ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING 17-1 The Advantages of Acceptance Sampling 17-2 The Concept of Sampling 17-3 Economics of Sampling versus 100 Percent Inspection 17-4 Sampling Risks: The Operating Characteristic Curve 17-5 Constructing the Operating Characteristic Curve 17-6 Analysis of Some Rule-of-thumb Sampling Plans 17-7 Evaluation of Parameters Affecting Acceptance Sampling Plans 17-8 Quality Indices for Acceptance Sampling Plans 17-9 Types of Sampling Plans 17-10 Comparison of Attributes and Variables Plans 17-11 Single Sampling, Double Sampling, and Multiple Sampling 17-12 Characteristics of a Good Acceptance Plan 17-13 Use of Dodge-Romig Sampling Tables 17-14 Minimum Inspection per Lot 17-15 MIL-STD-105D Tables 17-16 Selection of a Numerical Value of the Quality Index 17-17 Acceptance Sampling Plans by Variables 17-18 Sampling Procedures Based on Prior Information 17.19 Product Acceptance for a Statistically Controlled Process 17-20 Knowledge beyond Sampling 335 335 336 336 337 340 341 343 346 348 348 349 351 352 355 358 361 363 366 368 369 18 MEASUREMENT 18-1 Growing Importance of the Measurement Process 18-2 Economics of Measurement 18-3 Accuracy and Precision 18-4 Effect of Measurement Error on Acceptance Decisions 18-5 Statistical Aspects of Calibration 18-6 Analytical Determination of Accuracy and Precision 18-7 Resolving Observed Values into Components of Variation 18-8 Rounding Off of Measurements 18-9 Reducing and Controlling Errors 18-10 Programs for Maintaining Measuring Equipment 18-11 Conflict in Measurement 372 372 373 375 377 380 382 383 389 390 393 398 19 VENDOR RELATIONS 19-1 The General Problem of Vendor Quality 19-2 Vendor Quality Policy 19-3 Means for Qualifying Sources of Supply 19-4 Vendor Quality Survey 19-5 Data Banks for Vendor Evaluation 19-6 Initial Quality Planning with Vendors 19-7 Defining Quality Requirements for the Vendor 19-8 Cooperation with Vendors during Execution of the Contract 19-9 Writing the Quality Plan into the Contract 19-10 Uses of Vendor Quality Data 19-11 Organization and Administration of Vendor Relations Activities 402 402 403 405 406 408 409 412 413 414 416 417 20 STATISTICAL AIDS IN VENDOR RELATIONS 20-1 Overall Role in Vendor Relations 20-2 Histogram Analysis 20-3 The Lot Plot Plan 20-4 Evaluation of a Vendor's Design by a Reliability Prediction 20-5 Verification of Vendor Submitted Data 20-6 Quality Rating of Vendors 20-7 Using Vendor Ratings 421 421 421 424 427 427 429 433 21 PROCESS CONTROL 21-1 Controllability 21-2 Knowledge of "Supposed to Do" 21-3 Knowledge of "Is Doing" 21-4 Taking Regulatory Action 436 438 438 442 448 22 MOTIVATION FOR QUALITY 22-1 Effect of Multiple Standards 22-2 Management Behavior toward Quality 22-3 Managerial Quality-mindedness 22-4 Operator Quality-mindedness 22-5 Subspecies of Operator Failure 22-6 Campaigns to Improve Motivation 453 453 454 455 456 457 460 22-7 Provision for Operator Participation 22-8 The "Zero Defects" Programs 22-9 Organization Structure for Motivation Programs 22-10 Theories of Motivation 463 465 467 468 23 PROCESS CONTROL TECHNIQUES 23-1 The Concept of Dominant Systems 23-2 Setup Dominant Operations 23-3 Machine Dominant Operations 23-4 Narrow-limit Gaging: PRE-control 23-5 Operator Dominant Operations 23-6 Component Dominant Operations 23-7 Automation of Process Control 23-8 Quality Systems Audit 472 472 474 474 477 481 484 485 487 FINISHED GOODS ACCEPTANCE 24-1 Acceptance Inspection: General 24-2 The Modem Acceptance Function 24-3 Interpretation of the Specification 24-4 Seriousness Classification of Defects 24-5 Acceptance of Systems 24-6 Judgment of Conformance 24-7 Acceptance by Production Departments 24-8 Disposition of Nonconforming Product; Material Review Board 24-9 Accounting for the Cost of Rejections 24-10 Feedback of Inspection Data 24-11 Acceptance Sampling Plans for Life and Other Time Characteristics 24-12 Application of Standard Attributes and Variables Plans to Time Characteristics 24-13 Example of a Reliability Sampling Plan 24-14 Sampling for Bulk Product 24 492 492 493 493 494 495 499 500 501 503 503 505 510 511 513 25 CONTROL OF PRODUCT QUALITY DURING CUSTOMER USAGE 25-1 Quality Problem Areas during Customer Usage 25-2 Shipping, Receiving, and Storage 518 518 519 25-3 Installation, Alignment, and Operation 25-4 Operational Conditions and Maintenance 25-5 Configuration Control 25-6 Feedback of Usage Data from Customers 521 523 524 526 26 CUSTOMER RELATIONS 26-1 The Customer Viewpoint 26-2 Market Research 26-3 User Information in Product Redesign 26-4 Development of a Positive Quality Reputation 26-5 Advertising of Quality 26-6 Guarantee of Quality 26-7 Quality Labeling and Certification 26-8 Product Liability 26-9 Consumerism 530 530 532 533 533 535 536 538 539 540 27 STATISTICAL AIDS IN CUSTOMER RELATIONS 27-1 Significance of Field Complaints 27-2 Effect of Unit Price and Time on Complaint Rate 27-3 Complaint Indices 27-4 Obtaining Customer Information on Quality 27-5 Processing and Analysis of Customer Complaints 27-6 Cumulative Returns Analysis 27-7 Use of Probability Paper for Predicting Complaint Level 27-8 Design of Competitive Tests 543 543 544 546 547 548 550 553 555 28 QUALITY ASSURANCE 28-1 Nature of the Assurance Function 28-2 Measures of Field Performance 28-3 Quality Rating of Outgoing Product 28-4 Overall Survey of a Total Quality System 28-5 Quality Audits of Specific Activities 28-6 Control Subjects for Executive Reports on Quality 28-7 Securing the Facts 28-8 Setting a Standard of Performance 28-9 Summarizing Managerial Facts 558 558 559 559 562 565 566 569 569 570 29 QUALITY DATA SYSTEMS AND QUALITY MANUALS 29-1 Quality Data Systems: Scope 29-2 Design Principles for Data Systems 29-3 Importance of Accurate Quality Records 29-4 Initial Planning of Paper Work Systems 29-5 Example of the Use of Data Processing Equipment 29-6 Reliability Data Systems 29-7 Purposes of a Quality Control Manual 29-8 Evolution of the Manual 29-9 Development of the Manual 29-10 Content of the Manual 29-11 Audit of Actual Practice versus Manual 572 572 574 574 575 577 582 583 584 584 586 586 30 DIAGNOSIS TECHNIQUES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT 30-1 The Breakthrough Sequence in Quality Improvement 30-2 Quality Symptoms, Problems, Projects, Causes, and Remedies 30-3 General Approach to Management Controllable Problems 30-4 Diagnosis for the Dissectable Characteristics 30-5 Elements of a Complete Process Capability Analysis 30-6 Dissection into Streams: Variables 30-7 Dissection into Streams: Attributes 30-8 Analysis of Past Data 30-9 Defect Concentration Studies 30-10 Graphic Analysis 30-11 Diagnosis for Nondissectable Characteristics 30-12 Experiments for Evaluating Dominant Variables 30-13 Exploratory Experiments 30-14 Graphic Analysis and Experimentation 30-15 Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) 30-16 Analysis of Failures When the Specification Has Been Met 30-17 Measurement for Diagnosis 588 588 588 589 590 592 593 597 598 599 600 601 602 604 606 608 611 614 31 QUALITY CONTROL ENGINEERING 31-1 The Nature of "Staff" 31-2 Usual Staff Quality Functions 31-3 Assigning the Staff Quality Functions 623 623 624 626 31-4 Creation of the Staff Quality Control Department 31-5 Transferring Staff Functions to the Line 31-6 Jurisdictional Questions with Other Staff Departments 31-7 Job Specifications for Staff Quality Control Specialists 31-8 Selling "Quality Control" to Management 31-9 Administering the Staff Quality Control Department 31-10 Introducing Change Appendix Index 627 628 630 631 633 634 636 643 665

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