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Managing the flow of technology: technology transfer and the dissemination of technological information within the RandD organization

Author: Allen, Thomas J. Publisher: MIT Press, 1977.Language: EnglishDescription: xii, 320 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0262510278Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print T174.3 .A44 1977
(Browse shelf)

Includes bibliographical references and index


CONTENTS Preface to the Paperback Edition xvii Acknowledgments xi 1 Introduction 1 2 Information Flow in Science and Technology 6 The Information Explosion User Studies 7 The Present Research and Purpose of This Volume Notes 10 8 11 2 The Research Program 11 Phase 1: The Study of Parallel or Twin Projects Phase 2: Studies of Communication Networks Structure Summary 33 Notes 34 32 3 The Communication System in Technology: An Overview 35 Distinguishing Engineers from Scientists 39 The Nature of Technology Bureaucratic Organization 40 Communication Patterns in Science and Technology 4 4 The Relation Between Science and Technology 4 6 Notes 57 58 4 The Technological Literature 58 Allocation of Time for Literature Use 63 Literature as an Idea Source 65 Use of the Literature in Problem Definition 67 Sources of Ideas and Performance 70 A More Detailed Examination of Written Media 71 The Formal Engineering Literature 87 Informal Written Channels Comparison of Formal and Informal Written Channels Notes 97 35 96 contents iv 5 The Importance of Communication Within the Laboratory 99 Organizational Colleagues as Sources of Information 99 The Twin Projects 100 Consulting with Organizational Colleagues 101 Variation over Time 101 Technical Ideas Originating Within the Organization 104 Internal Consulting for Other Functions in Technical Problem Solving 106 Sources of Ideas and Performance 108 The Internal Consulting Study 110 Diversity in Communication 115 Intensity versus Diversity 121 Summary of the Evidence 122 Notes 125 6 Communications Among Organizations 126 Outsiders as Sources of Information 126 The Twin Projects 127 Time Spent in Personal Contact Outside the Laboratory Ideas from Outside Sources 130 Use of Outsiders to Aid in Problem Definition 132 The Contribution of Outsiders 134 The Technological Gatekeeper 141 Notes 180 128 7 Structuring Communication Networks 1: The Influence of Formal and Informal Organization 182 Barriers to Promoting Internal Consultation 182 The Decision to Use a Channel 184 First Source Selection 184 The Effect of Experience 187 The Order of Search in Information Seeking 188 The Nature of the Consulting Process 191 Strategies for Reducing Cost 195 The Influence of Organization on Communication Patterns 206 Contents The Formal Organization 2 11 The Informal Organization 220 The Impact of Status on Communication Notes 233 228 8 Structuring Organizational Communication Networks 2: The 234 Influence of Architecture on Communication Propinquity and Behavior 234 Research Method 235 Results 236 Organizational Bonds 240 Office Arrangements 242 Vertical Separation 242 248 Interaction-Promoting Facilities 249 An Experiment in Laboratory Design Notes 265 9 A Field Experiment to Improve Communication: The Nonterritorial Office 266 The Effect of Indirect Travel Routes on Communication Probability 266 The Nonterritorial Office Experiment 269 Intradepartmental Communication Patterns 2 7 9 The Territorial Imperative Revisited 281 Total Floor Space 285 Interdepartmental Communication 286 Performance of the Department 288 Conclusions from the Experiment 290 Notes 292 10 Where Are We? 293 Scientific and Technological Information Policy Organizational Behavior 294 293 contents Appendix 296 The Time Allocation Form 296 The Solution Development Record 298 The Communication Survey Questionnaire References 307 300 Subject Index 313 Name Index 319

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