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Pragmatics of human communication: a study of interactional patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes

Author: Watzlawick, Paul ; Beavin, Janet Helmick ; Jackson, Don D.Publisher: Norton 1967.Language: EnglishDescription: 296 p. : Graphs/Ill./Photos ; 22 cm.ISBN: NAType of document: BookNote: Doriot: for 2014-2015 coursesBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print BF637 .C45 W3 1967
(Browse shelf)
000034466
Available

Doriot: for 2014-2015 courses

Includes bibliographical references and index and glossary

Digitized

Pragmatics of Human Communication
A Study of Interactional Patterns,
Pathologies, and Paradoxes
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION 13
Chapter 1 The Frame of Reference 19
1.1 Introduction 19
1.2 The Notion of Function and Relationship 23
1.3 Information and Feedback 28
1.4 Redundancy 32
1.5 Metacommunication and the Concept of Calculus 39
1.6 Conclusions 43
1.61 The Black Box Concept 43
1.62 Consciousness and Unconsciousness 44
1.63 Present versus Past 44
1.64 Effect versus Cause 45
1.65 The Circularity of Communication Patterns 46
1.66 The Relativity of "Normal" and "Abnormal" 46
Chapter 2 Some Tentative Axioms of Communication 48
2.1 Introduction 48
2.2 The Impossibility of Not Communicating 48
2.21 Ail Behavior Is Communication 48
2.22 Units of Communication (Message, Interaction,
Pattern) 50
2.23 The Schizophrenic Attempts Not to Communicate 50
2.24 Definition of the Axiom 51
2.3 The Content and Relationship Levels of
Communication 51
2.31 "Report" and "Command" Aspects 51
2.32 Data and Instructions in Computer Work 52
2.33 Communication and Metacommunication 53
2.34 Definition of the Axiom 54
2.4 The Punctuation of the Sequence of Events 54
2.41 Punctuation Organizes Behavioral Sequences 54
2.42 Different "Realities" Due to Different
Punctuation 56
2.43 Bolzano's Infinite, Oscillating Series 58
2.44 Definition of the Axiom 59
2.5 Digital and Analogic Communication 60
2.51 In Natural and in Man-Made Organisms 60
2.52 In Human Communication 61
2.53 The Uniquely Human Use of Both Modes 62
2.54 Problems of Translation from One Mode into
the Other 64
2.55 Definition of the Axiom 66
2.6 Symmetrical and Complementary Interaction 67
2.61 Schismogenesis 67
2.62 Definition of Symmetry and Complementarity 68
2.63 Me tacomplementari ty 69
2.64 Definition of the Axiom 69
2.7 Summary 70
Chapter 3 Pathological Communication 72
3.1 Introduction 72
3.2 The Impossibility of Not Communicating 72
3.21 Denial of Communication in Schizophrenia 73
3.22 Its Converse 74
3.23 Wider Implications 75
3.231 "Rejection" of Communication 75
3.232 Acceptance of Communication 75
3.233 Disqualification of Communication 75
3.234 The Symptom As Communication 78
3.3 The Level Structure of Communication (Content and
Relationship) 80
3.31 Level Confusion 80
3.32 Disagreement 82
3.33 Definition of Self and Other 83
3.331 Confirmation 84
3.332 Rejection 85
3.333 Disconfirmation 86
3.34 Levels of Interpersonal Perception 90
3.35 Imperviousness 91
3.4 The Punctuation of the Sequence of Events 93
3.41 Discrepant Punctuation 94
3.42 Punctuation and Reality 95
3.43 Cause and Effect 96
3.44 Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 98
3.5 Errors in the "Translation" Between Analogic and
Digital Material 99
3.51 The Ambiguity of Analogic Communication 99
3.52 Analogic Communication Invokes Relationship 101
3.53 The Lack of "Not" in Analogic Communication 102
3.531 Expression of "Not" Through Nonoccur-
rence 103
3.532 Ritual 104
3.54 The Other Truth Functions in Analogic Com-
munication 105
3.55 Hysterical Symptoms As Retranslations into the
3.6 Potential Pathologies of Symmetrical and
Complementary Interaction 107
3.61 Symmetrical Escalation 107
3.62 Rigid Complementarity 108
3.63 The Mutually Stabilizing Effect of the Two
Modes 110
3.64 Examples 110
3.65 Conclusions 117
Chapter 4 The Organization of Human Interaction 118
4.1 Introduction 118
4.2 Interaction As a System 119
4.21 Time As a Variable 120
4.22 Definition of a System 120
4.23 Environment and Subsystems 121
4.3 The Properties of Open Systems 123
4.31 Wholeness 123
4.311 Nonsummativity 125
4.312 Nonunilaterality 126
4.32 Feedback 126
4.33 Equifinality 127
4.4 Ongoing Interactional Systems 129
4.41 Ongoing Relationships 129
4.411 Description versus Explanation 130
4.42 Limitation 131
4.43 Relationship Rules 132
4.44 The Family As a System 134
4.441 Wholeness 134
4.442 Nonsummativity 135
4.443 Feedback and Homeostasis 139
4.444 Calibration and Step-Functions 147
4.5 Summary 148
Chapter 5 A Communicational Approach to the Play
WHO'S AFRAID OF VIRGINIA WOOLF? 149
5.1 Introduction 149
5.11 Pl& Synopsis 150
5.2 Interaction As a System 152
5.21 Time and Order, Action and Reaction 153
5.22 Definition of the System 153
5.23 Systems and Subsystems 155
5.3 The Properties of an Open System 156
5.31 Wholeness 156
5.32 Feedback 158
5.33 Equifinality 158
5.4 An Ongoing Interactional System 160
5.41 George and Martha's "Game" 160
5.411 Their Style 168
5.42 The Son 172
5.43 Metacommunication Between George and
Martha 179
5.44 Limitation in Communication 183
5.45 Summary 185
5.451 Stability 185
5.452 Calibration 186
5.453 Recalibration 186
Chapter 6 Paradoxical Communication 187
6.1 The Nature of Paradox 187
6.11 Definition 188
6.12 The Three Types of Paradoxes 189
6.2 Logico-Mathematical Paradoxes 190
6.3 Paradoxical Definitions 192
6.4 Pragmatic Paradoxes 194
6.41 Paradoxical Injunctions 194
6.42 Examples of Pragmatic Paradoxes 195
6.43 The Double Bind Theory 211
6.431 The Ingredients of a Double Bind 212
6.432 The Pathogenicity of the Double Bind 213
6.433 Its Connection with Schizophrenia 215
6.434 Contradictory versus Paradoxical
Injunctions 215
6.435 Behavioral Effects of Double Binds 217
6.44 Paradoxical Predictions 219
6.441 The Headmaster's Announcement 219
6.442 The Disadvantage of Clear Thinking 221
6.443 The Disadvantage of Trusting 223
6.444 Undecidability 224
6.445 A Practical Example 224
6.446 Trust—the Prisoners' Dilemma 226
6.5 Summary 229
Chapter 7 Paradox in Psychotherapy 230
7.1 The Illusion of Alternatives 230
7.11 The Wife of Bath's Tale 230
7.12 Definition 231
7.2 The "Game Without End" 232
7.21 Three Possible Solutions 234
7.22 A Paradigm of Psychotherapeutic Intervention 235
7.3 Prescribing the Symptom 236
7.31 The Symptom As Spontaneous Behavior 236
7.32 On Symptom Removal 238
7.33 The Symptom in Its Interpersonal Context 239
7.34 A Brief Review 239
7.4 Therapeutic Double Binds 240
7.5 Examples of Therapeutic Double Binds 242
7.6 Paradox in Play, Humor, and Creativity 253
Epilogue Existentialism and the Theory of Human
Communication: an Outlook 257
8.1 Man in His Existential Nexus 257
8.2 The Environment As a Program 258
8.3 Reality Hypostatized 259
8.4 Levels of Knowledge, Third-Order Premises 260
8.41 Analogies of Third-Order Premises 262
8.5 Meaning and Nothingness 264
8.6 Change of Third-Order Premises 266
8.61 Analogies with Proof Theory 267
8.62 Gödel's Proof 269
8.63 Wittgenstein's Tractatus and the Ultimate
Paradox of Existence 270
References 272
Glossary 284
Author and Subject Index 289

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