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Decision making: a psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment

Author: Janis, Irving Lester ; Mann, LeonPublisher: Free Press, 1977.Language: EnglishDescription: xx, 488 p. ; 25 cm.ISBN: 0029161606Type of document: BookNote: Includes indexes/Bibliography: p. 445-473
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print BF441 .J36 1977
(Browse shelf)
000208078
Available

Includes indexes/Bibliography: p. 445-473

Digitized

Decision Making A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice and Commitment Contents List of Figures List of Tables Preface Acknowledgments Part 1. Sources of Error xi xiii xv xix Chapter 1. Man, the Reluctant Decision Maker Key Themes 4 / Quality of Decision Making 10 / Sources of Miscalculation 14 / Scope of the Book 17 3 Chapter 2. Decision-making Strategies Optimizing and the Perils of Suboptimizing 21 Satisficing 25 / Mixed Scanning 35 / The Decision Maker's Repertoire 39 Part 2. Hot Cognitive Processes 21 Chapter 3. A Conflict Model of Decision Making Decisional Conflicts as Sources of Stress 46 / A Model of Emergency Decision Making 52 / Extending the Model to All Consequential Choices 67 45 Chapter 4. Defective Search and Appraisal under High Conflict Bolstering the Preferred Alternative 82 / Implications of Conflict Theory 85 / Bolstering 81 vii viii Contents before Commitment 88 / Six Bolstering Tactics 91 / Defensive Avoidance and Preconscious Biases 95 / Defensive Avoidance and Unconscious Conflict 98 Chapter 5. Defensive Avoidance among Policy Makers Wishful Thinking in the Nixon Administration 107 / Ineffectual Planning for Desegregation 109 / Admiral Kimmel's Failure at Pearl Harbor 120 / Groupthink: A Collective Pattern of Defensive Avoidance 129 107 Chapter 6. The Decisional Balance Sheet Four Major Types of Consequence 137 / Importance of Nonutilitarian Considerations 140 / Analyzing Modes of Resolution 144 / The Defective-Balance-Sheet Hypothesis 147 135 Chapter 7. Stages of Decision Making Five Sequential Stages 171 / Implications for Group Decisions 179 / Implications for Responsiveness to Information 180 / The Stages Prolonged: Fischer's Break with Communism 183 / Reversions and Feedback Loops 188 / Bolstering as the Final Step toward Action 193 / The Combined Conflict and Stage-Sequence Model 194 Part 3. Major Research Findings 171 Chapter 8. Open-minded Exposure to Challenging Information Selective Exposure: The Hypothesis That Deserved to Be True 203 / Implications of the Conflict Model for Information Preferences 204 / A Field Study of the Draft Resistance Movement 207 / Stages of Decision Making and Information Preferences 212 / Deciding Which Information to Seek or Avoid 214 203 Chapter 9. Anticipatory Regret An Elusive Phenomenon 219 / Functional Value 222 / Determinants 223 / Five Unfavorable Conditions 224 / The Unknown Rub 228 / Fear of Unknown Risks among Disillusioned Executives 234 / Constructive Procrastination 239 219 Contents Chapter 10. Threats to Freedom of Choice Coercive Demands during the Watergate Coverup 243 / Contrasting Theoretical Approaches 247 / The Conflict Theory Position 248 / Threats and Losses: A Classification 251 / Threat by Chance Occurrence 252 / Loss Due to Chance Occurrence 255 / Threat by Directive Agent 256 / Loss Due to Directive Agent 262 / Self-concepts and Freedom 263 / Human Costs of Losing Choice 264 / Coercive Pressure and Defensive Avoidance 266 / The Illusion of No Choice 268 / Governmental Power and Restrictions on Personal Freedom 271 / Counteracting Malignant Compliance 273 243 Chapter 11. Effects of Commitment Commitment as a Source of Constraint 279 / Degrees of Commitment 284 / Commitment Traps for the Unwary 287 / Stabilizing Effect of Commitment 298 / Effects of Commitment Warnings 301 / Developmental Aspects of Commitment 306 279 Chapter 12. Postdecisional Conflict When the Honeymoon Is Over 309 / Sources of Regret 310 / Reactions to Postdecisional Crises 312 / Three Modes of Resolution 317 / Uses of Regret 321 / Spontaneous Regret 323 Part 4. Effective Interventions 309 Chapter 13. Challenging Outworn Decisions Clinical Examples 341 / Cognitive Confrontations 344 / Emotional Confrontations via Role Playing 348 339 Chapter 14. Improving the Quality of Decision Making Decision Counseling 368 / Applying the Balance Sheet Schema 377 / Outcome Psychodrama 379 / Emotional Inoculation for Postdecisional Setbacks 388 / Counteracting Defensive Avoidance in Policy-making Groups 395 / Implications for Professional Training and General Education 400 367 x Contents Appendix A. The Balance Sheet Procedure Appendix B. Procedures for Outcome Psychodrama Notes References Name Index Subject Index 405 411 415 445 475 483

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