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Competitive advantage: creating and sustaining superior performance

Author: Porter, Michael E. Publisher: Free Press, 1985. ; Macmillan, 1985.Language: EnglishDescription: 557 p. ; 25 cm.ISBN: 0029250900 ; 0029250900Type of document: BookNote: Doriot and Tanoto: for 2016-2017 coursesBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index List(s) this item appears in: Textbooks for Foundations of Strategy and Organisation / Guoli Chen / PhD 2016-2017
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print HD41 .P668 1985
(Browse shelf)
000189476
Available
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print HD41 .P668 1985
(Browse shelf)
000008320
Available
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print HD41 .P668 1985
(Browse shelf)
001072358
Available
Book Tanoto Library
Textbook Collection (PhD)
Print HD41 .P668 1985
(Browse shelf)
900009436
Consultation only
Book Tanoto Library
Textbook Collection (PhD)
Print HD41 .P668 1985
(Browse shelf)
900184618
Available

Doriot and Tanoto: for 2016-2017 courses

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

Chapter 1 Competitive Strategy: The Core Concepts T HE STRUCTURAL A NALYSIS OF INDUSTRIES 4 10 Industry Structure and Buyer Needs 8 Industry Structure and the Supply/Demand Balance G ENERIC COMPETITIVE STRATEGIES , 11 Cost Leadership 12 Differentiation 14 Focus 15 Stuck in the Middle 16 Pursuit of More Than One Generic Strategy 17 Sustainability 20 Generic Strategies and Industry Evolution 22 Generic Strategies and Organizational Structure 23 Generic Strategies and the Strategic Planning Process 25 OVERVIEW OF THIS BOOK 26 PART I PRINCIPLES OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Chapter 2 The Value Chain and Competitive Advantage T HE VALUE C HAIN Identifying Value Activities Defining the Value Chain 33 36 39 45 Linkages within The Value Chain Vertical Linkages 50 The Buyer's Value Chain 52 48 COMPETITIVE SCOPE AND THE VALUE CHAIN 53 Segment Scope 54 Vertical Scope 55 Geographic Scope 56 Industry Scope 56 Coalitions 'and Scope 51 Competitive Scope and Business Definition The Value Chain and Industry Structure 58 58 THE VALUE CHAIN AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 59 Chapter 3 Cost Advantage T HE VALUE CHAIN AND 62 COST ANALYSIS 64 64 Defining the Value Chain for Cost Analysis 65 Assigning Costs and Assets First Cut Analysis of Costs 61 COST BEHAVIOR 70 88 Cost Drivers 70 The Cost of Purchased Inputs Segment Cost Behavior 93 Cost Dynamics 95 COST ADVANTAGE 97 98 Determining the Relative Cost of Competitors 99 Gaining Cost Advantage Sustainability of Cost Advantage 112 Implementation and Cost Advantage 113 Pitfalls in Cost Leadership Strategies 115 STEPS IN STRATEGIC COST ANALYSIS Chapter 4 Differentiation SOURCES OF DIFFERENTIATION Differentiation and The Value Chain Drivers of Uniqueness 124 118 119 120 120 THE COST OF DIFFERENTIATION 127 BUYER VALUE AND DIFFERENTIATION 130 Buyer Value 13 1 The Value Chain and Buyer Value 132 Lowering Buyer Cost 135 Raising Buyer Performance 137 Buyer Perception of Value 138 Buyer Value and the Real Buyer 140 Buyer Purchase Criteria 141 Identifying Purchase Criteria 146 DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY Routes to Differentiation 153 The Sustainability of Differentiation Pitfalls in Differentiation 160 150 158 STEPS IN DIFFERENTIATION 162 Chapter 5 Technology and Competitive Advantage TECHNOLOGY AND 164 COMPETITION 166 Technology and The Value Chain 166 Technology and Competitive Advantage 169 Technology and Industry Structure 172 TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY 176 177 18 1 The Choice of Technologies to Develop Technological Leadership or Followership Licensing of Technology 191 TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION 194 197 Continuous Versus Discontinuous Technological Evolution Forecasting Technological Evolution 197 FORMULATING TECHNOLOGICAL STRATEGY Chapter 6 Competitor Selection 201 198 THE STRATEGIC BENEFITS OF COMPETITORS Increasing Competitive Advantage 202 Improving Current Industry Structure 207 Aiding Market Development 209 Deterring Entry 210 202 WHAT MAKES A "GOOD" COMPETITOR? Tests of a Good Competitor 212 "Good" Market Leaders 2 16 Diagnosing Good Competitors 2 16 2 12 INFLUENCING THE PATTERN OF COMPETITORS 220 21 8 Damaging Good Competitors in Battling Bad Ones Changing Bad Competitors into Good Ones 220 THE OPTIMAL MARKET CONFIGURATION The Optimal Competitor Configuration 221 Maintaining Competitor Viability 224 Moving toward the Ideal Competitor Configuration Maintaining Industry Stability 225 221 224 PITFALLS IN COMPETITOR SELECTION 226 PART II COMPETITIVE SCOPE WITHIN A N INDUSTRY Chapter 7 Industry Segmentation and Competitive Advantage BASES FOR INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION Structural Bases For Segmentation Segmentation Variables 237 Finding New Segments 247 234 231 233 THE INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION MATRIX Relationships Among Segmentation Variables Combining Segmentation Matrices 25 1 248 250 INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION AND COMPETITIVE STRATEGY 255 The Attractiveness of a Segment 256 Segment Interrelationships 258 Segment Interrelationships and Broadly-Targeted Strategies The Choice of Focus 264 The Feasibility of New Segments to Focus On 266 The Sustainability of a Focus Strategy 266 Pitfalls and Opportunities for Focusers and Broadly-Targeted 269 Competitors 263 INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEFINITION 272 Chapter 8 Substitution IDENTIFYING SUBSTITUTES Relative Value/Price 279 Switching Costs 286 Buyer Propensity .to Substitute Segmentation and Substitution 213 274 278 THE ECONOMICS OF SUBSTITUTION 288 289 CHANGES IN THE SUBSTITUTION THREAT 291 Substitution and Overall Industry Demand Substitution and Industry Structure 297 296 THE PATH OF SUBSTITUTION 297 301 Segmentation and the Substitution Path Substitution Forecasting Models 302 SUBSTITUTION AND COMPETITIVE STRATEGY 307 Promoting Substitution 307 Defense Against Substitutes 3 10 Industry Versus Firm Substitution Strategy 312 Pitfalls in Strategy Against Substitutes 313 PART III CORPORATE STRATEGY AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Chapter 9 Interrelationships among Business Units THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF HORIZONTAL STRATEGY 320 INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG BUSINESS UNITS TANGIBLE INTERRELATIONSHIPS Sharing and Competitive Advantage The Costs of Sharing 331 Difficulty of Matching 335 Identifying Tangible Interrelationships 317 323 326 326 336 INTANGIBLE INTERRELATIONSHIPS COMPETITOR INTERRELATIONSHIPS 350 353 355 360 Multipoint Competitors in Unrelated Industries Multipoint Competition in Related Industries Competitors with Different Patterns of Interrelationships Forecasting Potential Competitors 363 361 Chapter 10 Horizontal Strategy 364 365 THE NEED FOR EXPLICIT HORIZONTAL STRATEGY Formulating Horizontal Strategy INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND STRATEGY 375 368 DIVERSIFICATION 376 Diversification Based on Tangible Interrelationships Diversification Through Beachheads 378 Diversification and Corporate Resources 380 PITFALLS IN HORIZONTAL STRATEGY 380 Pitfalls in Ignoring Interrelationships Pitfalls in Pursuing Interrelationships 380 381 Chapter 11 Achieving Interrelationships 383 IMPEDIMENTS TO ACHIEVING INTERRELATIONSHIPS Sources of Impediments 386 Interrelationships and Equity 392 Differences in Impediments among Firms 393 385 ORGANIZATIONAL MECHANISMS FOR ACHIEVING INTERRELATIONSHIPS 393 Horizontal Structure 395 Horizontal Systems 402 Horizontal Human Resource Practices 405 Horizontal Conflict Resolution Processes 407 The Corporate Role in Facilitating Interrelationships Interrelationships and the Mode of Diversification 408 408 MANAGING HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATION Promising Examples 410 Japanese Firms and Interrelationships A New Organizational Form 414 414 409 Chapter 12 Complementary Products and Competitive Advantage CONTROL OVER COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS 416 41 8 Competitive Advantages From Controlling Complements 418 Problems of Controlling Complements 422 Control Over Complements and Industry Evolution 422 Identifying Strategically Important Complements 423 BUNDLING 425 Competitive Advantages of Bundling 426 Risks of Bundling 429 Bundled Versus Unbundled Strategies 430 Bundling and Industry Evolution 432 Strategic Implications of Bundling 435 CROSS SUBSIDIZATION 436 Conditions Favoring Cross Subsidization 437 Risks o Cross Subsidization f 438 Cross Subsidization and Industry Evolution 439 Strategic Implications of Cross Subsidization 440 COMPLEMENTS AND COMPETITIVE STRATEGY 442 PART IV IMPLICATIONS FOR OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE COMPETITIVE STRATEGY Chapter 13 Industry Scenarios and Competitive Strategy under Uncertainty 445 Scenarios as a Planning Tool Industry Scenarios 447 446 CONSTRUCTING INDUSTRY SCENARIOS Identifying Industry Uncertainties 45 1 Independent Versus Dependent Uncertainties Identifying a Set of Scenarios 458 Consistency of Assumptions 46 1 Analyzing Scenarios 463 Introducing Competitor Behavior into Scenarios The Number of Scenarios To Analyze 467 Attaching Probabilities to Scenarios 468 Summary Characteristics of Industry Scenarios Strategic Approaches Under Scenarios Combined and Sequenced Strategies 47 1 448 453 465 470 INDUSTRY SCENARIOS AND COMPETITIVE STRATEGY 470 475 The Choice of Strategy Under Industry Scenarios 475 Scenario Variables and Market Intelligence 477 SCENARIOS AND THE PLANNING PROCESS 478 419 Corporate Role in Constructing Industry Scenarios Industry Scenarios and Creativity 480 Chapter 14 Defensive Strategy 482 THE PROCESS OF ENTRY DEFENSIVE TACTICS OR REPOSITIONING 483 487 Raising Structural Barriers 488 Increasing Expected Retaliation 494 Lowering the Inducement for Attack 498 EVALUATING DEFENSIVE TACTICS DEFENSIVE STRATEGY 503 Deterrence 504 Response 508 Response to Price Cutting 510 Defense or Disinvest 5 11 Pitfalls in Defense 5 12 500 Chapter 15 Attacking an Industry Leader CONDITIONS FOR ATTACKING A 513 514 5 17 LEADER AVENUES FOR ATTACKING LEADERS Reconfiguration 5 19 Redefinition 523 Pure Spending 528 Alliances To Attack Leaders 529 IMPEDIMENTS TO LEADER RETALIATION SIGNALS OF 530 LEADER VULNERABILITY 534 535 533 Industry Signals Leader Signals ATTACKING LEADERS AND INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 535 Bibliography 537 Index 541 About the Author 559

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