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Multinational marketing management

Author: Keegan, Warren J. Series: Prentice-Hall international series in management Publisher: Prentice Hall, 1984.Edition: 3rd ed.Language: EnglishDescription: 698 p. ; 25 cm.ISBN: 0136050492Type of document: BookBibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
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Book Tanoto Library
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Print HF1009.5 .K39 1984
(Browse shelf)
900023304
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Includes bibliographical references and index

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CONTENTS PREFACE, xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, xxi I. A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW 1. An Introduction To Multinational Marketing Management, 1 Introduction, 1 Marketing, 2 Global Marketing Activities, 8 Foreign Marketing, 4 International-Multinational-Global Marketing, 5 Relationship Between Domestic and Multinational-Global Marketing, 7 Outline of This Book. 8 Summary 8 Discussion Questions, 8 Bibliography, 9 Case: Which Company Is Truly Multinational? 25 vi CONTENTS 2. Underlying Forces and Concepts, 27 Introduction, 27 Trade Theory, 28 Marketing versus Sourcing, 29 Underlying Forces of International Business, 29 The lnternational Monetary Framework, 30 The World Trading System, 30 Global Peace, 31 Domestic Economic Growth, 31 Communications, 32 The Multinational Corporation, 33 Key Concepts, 33 Strategy Formulation, 34 The Company in the World, 36 Clustering, 37 Environmental Sensitivity, 38 Unifying and Differentiating Inffuences, 39 Leverage, 42 ETHNOCENTRIC, POLYCENTRIC, AND GEOCENTRIC, 42 Product Life Cycle/Market Life Cycle, 43 Summary, 43 Discussion Questions, 44 Bibliography, 44 Appendix: Comparative Advantage-An Example, 46 Case: Quaker Oats Company (A), 47 IL ANALYZING THE GLOBAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT 3. Economic Environment, 57 Introduction, 57 Market Characteristics, 58 The Location of Income, 58 The Location of Population, 64 Trade Patterns, 64 Consumption Patterns, 72 Engel's Law, 72 Product Saturation Levels, 72 Market Development, 73 Marketing and Economic Development, 73 Stages of Market Development, 76 PREINDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES, 76 UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES, 78 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, 78 INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES, 79 POSTINDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES, 79 National Controls of International Transfers, 81 Why Identify Control Motives? 82 Summaxy, 84 Discussion Questions, 88 Bibliography, 85 Case: 4. Quaker Oats Company (B). 86 Social and Cultural Elements of the World Market Environment, 96 Introduction, 96 Basic Aspects of Culture, 97 The Search for Cultural Universals, 98 The Anthropologist's Standpoint, 99 Communication, 99 Analytical Approaches to Cultural Factors, 100 The Need Hierarchy, 100 The Self-Reference Criterion, 103 Diffusion Theory, 104 THE ADOPTION PROCESS, 105 CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATIONS, 106 ADOPTER CATEGORIES, 107 High- and Low-Context Cultures, 108 Perception, 110 Industrial Products, 111 A Case Example: Marketing an Industrial Product in Latin America, 112 The Pitch, 113 The Failure, 114 Consumer Products, 115 Nationalism, 119 Cross-Cultural Complications and Solutions, 121 Summary, 123 Discussion Questions, 123 Bibliography, 124 Case: Choufont-Salva, Inc., 125 Appendix I: Position of the Roman Catholic Church Concerning Contraception, 140 Appendix II: Excerpts from "The Family Planning Association of the Philippines-Its Performance and Program of Activities." 141 5. Regional Market Characteristics, 143 Introduction, 143 Economic Cooperation and Preferential Trade Arrangements, 143 Free Trade Area, 144 EUROPEAN FREE TRADE A SSOCIATION, 144 LATIN AMERICAN INTEGRATION ASSOCIATION (ASSOCIACION LATINO-AMERICANA DE INTEGRACION), 144 Customs Union, 145 Economic Union, 145 THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY, 146 CARIBBEAN COMMUNNITY AND COMMON MARKET, 147 ANDEAN COMMON MARKET, 148 CENTRAL AMERICAN COMMON MARKET (MERCADO COMUN CENTRO AMERICANO), 148 ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH EAST ASIAN NATIONS, 149 COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE, 149 ORGANISATION COMMUNE AFRICAINE ET MAURICIENNE, 150 Regional Market Characteristics;, 151 Western Europe, 151 Eastern Europe, 152 TRADING WITH THE USSR, 153 MARKETING WITHIN THE SOVIET STRUCTURE, 154 North America, 155 Asia, 156 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JAPANESE MARKET, 157 U.S.JAPANESE CONTRAST, 161 NEGOTIATING IN JAPAN, 162 Latin America, 164 Africa, 165 OCEANIA, 166 MIDDLE EAST, 166 Marketing in Less Developed Countries, 168 Summary, 169 Discussion Questions, 170 Bibliography, 170 Appendix: Marketing in Europe, 172 Case: Gulf 0il Corporation, 178 6. Legal Dimensions, 186 Introduction, 186 Legal Environment, 186 Relevant Business Issues, 188 Establishment, 188 Patents and Trademarks, 189 Recourse, 189 Taxes, 190 Expropriation, 190 Antitrust, 192 viii Bribery, 192 Regulatory Agencies;, 195 Summary, 196 Discussion Questions, 196 Bibliography, 196 Case: World Electric, 197 CONTENTS Case: Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 200 7. The Financial Framework, 205 Introduction, 205 Currency Supply and Demand, 207 Case: The Antidumping Case Against Polish Golf Carts: The Interaction of Legal, Administrative, and Political Factors in International Trade, 209 8. Marketing Information Systems, 214 Introduction, 214 Elements of an International Information System, 216 Information Subject Agenda, 215 Scanning Modes: Surveillance and Search, 216 Sources of Information, 218 Human Sources, 218 Documentary Sources, 221 Perception Sources, 222 Information Media, 223 Marketing Research, 224 Comparability of lnternational Data, 224 Summary, 226 Discussion Questions, 226 9. Marketing Research, 227 Introduction, 227 Assessing Market Opportunity, 228 Special Problems in International Marketing Research. 230 Researching International Markets, 231 Five Rules for International Research, 231 Survey Research, 232 Sampling, 233 Analytical Techniques for Researching International Markets, 234 Demand Pattern Analysis, 234 Income Elasticity Measurements, 235 Regional Lead-Lags, 236 Estimation by Analogy, 237 Comparative Analysis, 240 Cluster Analysis, 240 Multiple Factor Indexes, 241 Regression Analysis, 242 Headquarters Control of International Marketing Research. 244 Summary, 248 Discussion Questions, 245 Bibliography, 245 Appendix: International Marketing Research, 247 CONTENTS III. FORMULATING MULTINATIONAL MARKETING 10. Strategy Alternatives for Entry and Expansion, 252 ix STRATEGIE Introduction, 232 Exporting, 262 Licensing, 255 Joint Ventures, 255 Technology and Process Applications, 256 Ownership, 256 Market Expansion Strategies, 257 Market Position-A Strategic Guide, 258 Marketing Strategies of U.S., European, and Japanese Multinational Subsidiaries, 239 The EPRG Framework, 260 Alternative Strategies;, 261 Summary, 264 Discussion Questions, 264 Bibliography, 264 Case: Odysseus, Inc., 266 11. Competitive Analysis and Strategy, 276 Introduction, 276 Competition, 276 Industry Analysis, 278 Forces Influencing Competition, 278 THREAT OF ENTRY, 278 THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS, 281 M ACRO FORCES AND MICRO FACTORS, 281 Competitor Analysis, 282 Phase I: Mapping the Past, 282 Phase II: Identifying the Competitor's Strategy to Date, 283 Phase III: Evaluating the Competitor's Resources, 283 CONCEIVE AND DESIGN, 283 PRODUCE, 283 MARKETING, 284 FINANCE, 284 MANAGEMENT,284 Competitive Strategy, 284 Cost per Unit, 285 The Case of Color Television, 285 Competition and the Product Life Cycle, 286 Strategies for Success, 287 GROWTH SEGMENTS, 287 INNOVATION AND QUALITY, 287 OPERATING EFFICIENCIES, 288 Competitive Strategy in Fragmented Industries, 288 OVERCOMING FRAGMENTATION, 289 LIVING WITH FRAGMENTATION, 289 Competitive Strategy: Generic Approaches, 290 OVERALL COST LEADERSHIP, 290 DIFFERENTIATION, 290 Focus, 291 Positioning, 291 Market Leadership, 292 QUICK RESPONSE, 293 STRATEGIES FOR MAINTAINING LEADERSHIP, 293 The Market Challenger, 296 Market Follower, 296 Market Niche Strategy or Market Segmentation Strategy, 297 Summary, 297 Discussion Questions, 297 Bibliography, 297 Case: International Foods Incorporated (A), 298 12. Product Decisions, 305 Introduction, 308 Basic Concepts, 306 Definition of a Product, 306 Product Characteristics, 307 LOCAL VERSUS INTERNATIONAL VERSUS x CONTENTS GLOBAL P RODUCTS, 307 International Trade Product Life Cycle, 309 Product Saturation Levels in International Markets, 311 Product Design, 312 PREFERENCES, 313 COST, 313 LAWS AND REGULATIONS, 313 COMPATIBILITY, 314 Attitudes Toward Foreign Products, 315 Geographic Expansion--Sttategic Alternatives, 317 STRATEGY 1: PRODUCT-COMMUNICATIONS EXTENSION, 318 STRATEGY 2: PRODUCT EXTENSION-COMMUNICATIONS ADAPTATION, 319 S TRATEGY 3: PRODUCT ADAPTATION-COMMUNICATIONS EXTENSION, 320 STRATEGY 4: DUAL ADAPTATION, 320 STRATEGY 5: PRODUCT INVENTION, 321 How to Choose a Strategy, 322 PRODUCT-MARKET ANALYSIS, 322 New Products in Multinational Marketing, 324 Identifying New Product Ideas, 326 The International New Product Department, 327 Introducing New Products in National Markets, 328 Comparative Analysis, 328 Summary, 329 Discussion Questions, 330 Bibliography, 330 Case: International Foods Incorporated (B), 332 13. Pricing Decisions, 339 Introduction, 339 Export Pricing, 340 Cost-Plus Pricing, 340 Pricing Objectives, 342 PENETRATION PRICING, 342 MARKET SKIMMING, 342 MARKET H OLDING, 343 Price Escalation, 343 lnternational Dumping Regulations, 345 Devaluation and Revaluation, 347 Pricing in an Inflationary Environment, 348 Government Controls, 349 Competitive Behavior, 349 Market Demand, 350 Transfer Pricing, 380 Section 482, 352 Sales of Tangible Property, 353 COMPARABLE UNCONTROLLED PRICE METHOD, 354 RESALE PRICE METHOD, 354 COST-PLUS METHOD, 355 Competitive Pricing, 355 Importance of Section 482 Regulations, 356 Other Constraints on International Pricing, 357 COMPANY CONTROLS, 357 DUTY AND TARIFF CONSTRAINTS, 357 GOVERNMENT CONTROLS, 358 Joint Ventures, 358 Multicountry Pricing-Three Po1icy Alternatives, 339 Extension/Ethnocentric, 359 Adaptation/Polycentric, 359 Invention/Geocentric, 359 Summary, 361 Discussion Questions, 361 Bibliography, 361 Case: Minolta Camera Co. Ltd., 362 14. Channel Decisions, 373 Introduction, 373 Channel Objectives and Constraints, 374 Customer Characteristics, 375 Product Characteristics, 376 Middleman Characteristics, 376 SELECTION AND CARE OF DISTRIBUTORS AND CONTENTS xi AGENTS, 377 Environmental Characteristics, 378 Channel Terminology, 379 Supermarket-U.S. Version, 380 Supermarkets Outside the United States, 381 Channel Structure, 382 Consumer Products, 382 International Retailing, 385 Industrial Products, 386 Channels in Less Developed Countries, 387 Bolivian Channels: A Case Example, 389 International Channel Innovation, 390 Channel Strategy for New Market Entry, 391 Case Example: Japan, 392 Six Steps to a Japanese Distribution Strategy, 393 Summary 394 Bibliography, 394 Appendix I: Selecting Agents and Distributors, 395 Appendix II: Guidelines for Terminating Agents and Distributors, 402 Case: Richardson Manufacturing Company, Inc., 412 15. Promotion Decisions, 436 Introduction, 436 Advertising, 436 Advertising and Stages of Economic Development, 437 World Advertising Expenditures, 438 Per Capita Advertising Expenditures, 439 Advertising Expenditures as a Percent of Gross National Product, 439 Worldwide Advertising Expenditures by Media Categories and Variations by Region, 443 Television Advertising, 448 Radio Advertising, 449 Advertising Strategy-Formulating Objectives, 462 Extend, Adapt, or Invent, 453 Appeals, 456 Illustrations and Layouts, 457 Copy, 458 International Advertising, 460 Summary, 463 Discussion Questions, 463 Bibliography, 463 Case: Warner-Lambert Japan Ltd., Schick Products Division, 465 Appendix: Excerpts from the Results of a Survey Conducted by INRA Among 1,010 Consumers in the Tokyo and Osaka Areas in 1975, 489 16. Exporting and Importing, 491 Introduction, 491 Export Behavior of Firms, 493 Company Policies Toward Exports, 494 National Policies Toward Exports,, 495 Government Programs Supporting Exports, 495 Government Export Expansion Programs-The U.S. xii CONTENTS Example, 497 Government Regulations of Exports-The U.S. Case, 497 Terms of Access, 498 Tariff Systems, 498 SINGLE-COLUMN TARIFF, 499 TWO-COLUMN TARIFF, 499 Preferential Tariff, 499 Types of Duties, 499 AD VALOREM DUTIES, 499 SPECIFIC DUTIES, 500 ALTERNATIVE DUTIES, 500 COMPOUND OR MIXED DUTIES, 500 ANTIDUMPING DUTIES, 500 COUNTERVAILING DUTIES, 500 Other Import Charges, 500 VARIABLE IMPORT LEVIES, 500 TEMPORARY IMPORT SURCHARGES, 501 COMPENSATORY IMPORT TAXES, 501 ADAPTATION TO MEET LOCAL REQUIREMENTS, 501 TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, 501 Nontariff Barriers, 502 QUOTAS AND TRADE CONTROL, 502 DISCRIMINATORY GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE PROCUREMENT POLICIES, 503 RESTRICTIVE CUSTOMS PROCEDURES, 503 SELECTIVE MONETARY CONTROLS AND DISCRIMINATORY EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES, 503 RESTRICTIVE ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS, 503 Tariff Classification, 504 The Decision to Investigate Export Markets, 505 Choosing Export Markets, 506 Creating a Product-Market Profile, 506 Market Selection, 506 MARKET POTENTIAL, 506 TERMS OF ACCESS, 507 SHIPPING COST, 507 APPRAISING THE LEVEL AND QUALITY OF COMPETITION IN THE POTENTIAL MARKET, 507 PRODUCT FIT, 508 SERVICE, 508 Visiting the Potential Market, 509 Developing an Export Program, 509 Trade Terms, 510 EX-FACTORY (OR EX-WORKS, EX-MILL, ExPLANTATION, EX-WAREHOUSE), 510 FAS (FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP) NAMED PORT OF SHIPMENT, 510 FOB (FREE ON BOARD), 511 C.I.F. (COSt, INSURANCE, FREIGHT) NAMED PORT OF DESTINATION, 511 DELIVERED DUTY PAID, 511 Export Organization-Manufacturer's Country, 511 External Independent Export Organizations, 522 WEBB-POMERENE ASSOCIATIONS, 512 The Export Trading Company Act of 1982, 524 In-House Export Organization, 514 Export Organization-Market Country, 813 Direct Market Representation, 515 Independent Representation, 516 Piggyback Marketing, 516 Export Promotion, 517 Export Financing, 517 Export Letters of Credit, 527 Dollar (or Foreign Currency) Drafts Covering Exports, 517 Sales Against Cash Deposit in Advance, 517 Sales on Open Account, 518 Sales on a Consignment Basis, 518 Barter and Countertrade, 319 Barter, 519 SIMPLE BARTER, 519 CLOSED-END BARTER, 520 CLEARING ACCOUNT BARTER, 520 Countertrade, 520 COUNTERPURCHASE, 521 OFFSET, 521 COMPENSATION TRADING, 522 COOPERATION AGREEMENTS, 522 HYBRID COUNTERTRADE ARRANGEMENTS, 522 SWITCH TRADING, 523 Export Documentation and Control, 523 Trade and Economic Development, 524 Summary, 525 Discussion Questions, 525 Bibliography, 525 Appendix: The 10 Most Common Mistakes of Potential Exporters, 527 CONTENTS xiii MANAGING THE MULTINATIONAL MARKETING PROGRAM 17. Global Marketing Planning, 530 Introduction, 530 Global Strategy-A Conceptual Framework, 830 What Rind of International Plan? 531 Standardized, 531 Decentralized, 532 Interactive, 533 Current Planning Practices, 533 Planning for Multinational Brands, 536 Planning in the Global Enterprise, 538 Requirements for a Successful Global Marketing Plan, 838 Grouping World Markets for Product Planning, 340 The Existing Markets: Industrial Countries, 541 Important Potential: The Industrializing Countries, 543 Some Prospects: The Promising Less Developed Countries, 543 Few Prospects: The Unpromising Less Developed Countries, 543 Planning Concepts, 544 Competence Centers, 544 Orientation and Multinational Marketing Planning, 544 Summary, 545 Discussion Questionsr 845 Bibliography, 548 Case: Svenska Ackumulator AB Jungner, 546 Appendix: Comments About the Development of a Marketing Planning System, 564 18. Organization for Global Marketing, 567 Introduction, 567 Patterns of International Organizational Development, 668 International Division Structure, 570 Regional Management Centers, 571 Beyond the International Division, 575 Geographical Structure, 575 Worldwide Product Division Structure, 575 Strategic Business Units, 876 The Matrix Structure, 578 MATRIX VARIATIONS, 581 Relationship Among Structure, Foreign Product Diversification, and Size, 583 Organization Structure and National Origin, 583 A Typical Company Experience, 585 Bibliography, 589 Case: Bancil Corporation, 590 19. Global Marketing Management Control. 605 Introduction, 605 Control and Planning, 606 How Headquarters Achieves Control of Subsidiary Operations, 608 Formal Control Methods, 610 Planning and Budgeting, 610 Evaluating Performance, 610 Influences on Marketing Budgets, xiv CONTENTS 611 MARKET POTENTIAL, 611 COMPETITION, 611 IMPACT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS, 612 PROCESS, 612 Other Measures of Performance, 613 Informal Control Methods, 613 Variables Influencing Control, 614 DOMESTIC PRACTICES AND THE VALUE OF STANDARDIZATION, 614 COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM, 614 DISTANCE, 615 THE PRODUCT, 616 ENVIRONMENTAL DIFFERENCES, 616 ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY, 616 SUBSIDIARY PERFORMANCE, 617 SIZE OF INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS, 617 Communications and Control in the Multinational Enterprise, 619 Types of Communications, 619 IMPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS, 619 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS, 620 Effects of Communications, 620 CONTROL, 620 Communications Guidelines, 621 Summary, 621 Discussion Questions, 622 Bibliography, 623 Case: Global Fasteners, Inc., 624 20. The Future of Global Marketing, 631 Introduction, 631 Global Corporations in the Evolving International Economic Order, 631 Decline of the United States and the Rise of the Pacific Basin, 634 Marketing: A Global Profession. 636 Type of Person Needed for Multinational Marketing, 636 A WORLD-BEATER IN THE DOMESTIC ARENA (A), 636 CAREER SHOWS SOME MULTINATIONAL ORIENTATION (B), 637 COMPETENT PLANNER (C), 637 CUSTOMER ORIENTED (D), 637 PERSONAL QUALITIES, 638 Impact of Marketing Approach on Job Specifications, 639 IF THE MARKET APPROACH Is TO A, DIRECT EXPORT, 639 IF THE MARKET APPROACH Is TO B, LICENSE, 639 IF THE MARKET APPROACH Is TO C, MANUFACTURE OFFSHORE, 639 IF THE MARKET APPROACH Is TO D, EXPORT COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES OFFSHORE, 639 IF THE MARKET APPROACH Is TO E, ACQUIRE A FOREIGN FIRM OR MERGE WITH IT, 640 Job Descriptions: U.S.A. World Trading Company, 640 Position Specification: Regional Manager, Southeast Asia, 640 CLIENT ORGANIZATION, 640 SUMMARY OF POSITION RESPONSIBILITIES, 641 RELATIONSHIPS, 641 Candidate Specification: Senior Marketing Manager, 642 KEY SELECTION CRITERIA, 642 IDEAL EXPERIENCE, 642 IDEAL PERSONAL PROFILE, 643 Position Specification: Hong Kong Regional Director, Northern Asia, Singapore Regional Director, Southern Asia, 644 CLIENT ORGANIZATION, 644 POSITION SUMMARY, 644 RELATIONSHIPS, 644 MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES, 644 Candidate Specification, 645 IDEAL EXPERIENCE, 645 IDEAL PERSONAL PROFILE, 646 Summary. 646 Bibliography, 647 Case: Polaroid France, S.A., 647 CONTENTS xv Appendices, 669 I: Secondary Research for International Markets, 669 II: How to Use the International Marketing Information Resources of the U.S. Department of Commerce, 677 INDEX, 689

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