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Data and reality: basic assumptions in data processing reconsidered

Author: Kent, William Publisher: North-Holland, 1978.Language: EnglishDescription: xv, 211 p. ; 23 cm.ISBN: 0444851879Type of document: BookNote: Bibliography: p. 205-211
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print QA76.9 .D3 K46
(Browse shelf)
000172506
Available

Bibliography: p. 205-211

Digitized

Data and Reality
Basic Assumptions in Data
Processing Reconsidered
Contents
Preface v
1.0 Entities 1
1.1 One Thing 2
1.2 How Many Things Is It? 6
1.3 Change 8
1.4 The Murderer and the Butler 12
1.5 Categories (What Is It?) 12
1.6 Existence 16
1.6.1 How Real? 16
1.6.2 How Long? 18
2.0 The Nature of an Information System 21
2.1 Organization 21
2.1.1 Repository 22
2.1.2 Interface 22
2.1.3 Processor 22
2.2 Data Description 23
2.2.1 Purpose 23
2.2.2 Levels of Description 24
2.2.3 The Traditional Separation of
Descriptions and Data 28
2.3 What is "In the System"? 30
2.4 Existence Tests in Information Systems 33
2.4.1 Acceptance Tests: List and Non-List 33
2.4.2 An Act of Creation 34
2.4.3 Existence by Mention 35
2.4.4 Existence by Implication 35
2.5 Records and Representatives 36
3.0 Naming 41
3.1 How Many Ways? 41
3.2 What is Being Names? 46
3.3 Uniqueness, Scope, and Qualifiers 47
3.3.1 Deliberate Non-uniqueness 49
3.3.2 Effective Qualification 50
3.4 Scope of Naming Conventions 52
3.5 Changing Names 53
3.6 Versions 53
3.7 Names, Symbols, Representations 54
3.8 Why Separate Symbols and Things? 54
3.8.1 Do Names "Represent"? 54
3.8.2 Simple Ambiquity 57
3.8.3 Surrogates, Internai Identifiers 58
3.9 Sameness (Equality) 60
3.9.1 Tests60
3.9.2 Failures 61
4.0 Relationships 63
4.1 Degree, Domain, and Role 64
4.2 Forms of Binary Relationships 65
4.3 Other Characteristics 70
4.4 Naming Conventions 72
4.4.1 No Name 72
4.4.2 One Name 73
4.4.3 Two Names 73
4.5 Relationships and Instances Are Entities 74
4.6 "Computed" Relationships 74
5.0 Attributes 77
5.1 Some Ambiguities 77
5.2 Attributive vs. Relationship 79
5.3 Are Attributes Entities? 82
5.4 Attributive vs. Category 82
5.5 Options 83
5.6 Conclusion 84
6.0 Types and Categories and Sets 85
6.1 "Type" : A Merging of Ideas 85
6.1.1 Guidelines 85
6.1.2 Conflicts 86
6.2 Extended Concepts 87
6.2.1 Arbitrary Sets 87
6.2.2 General Constraints 87
6.2.3 Types, If You Want Them 89
6.3 Sets 89
6.3.1 sets and Attributes 89
6.3.2 Type vs. Population (Intension vs.
Extension) 90
6.3.3 Representation of Sets 91
7.0 Models 93
7.1 General Concept of Models 93
7.2 The Conceptual Model: Sooner, or Later? 94
7.3 Models of Reality vs. Models of Data 96
7.3.1 Semiotics 97
7.4 Current Models 98
7.4.1 Four Popular Models 98
7.4.2 An Ironic Ambiguity 99
7.4.3 Graph Structured Models 100
8.0 The Record Model 101
8.1 Semantic Implications 102
8.2 The Type/Instance Dichotomy 104
8.2.1 An Instance of Exactly One Type 104
8.2.2 Descriptions Are Not Information 105
8.2.3 Regularity (Homogeneity) 107
8.2.4 Pre-definition (Stability) 108
8.3 Too Many Ways to Represent Relationships 109
8.4 But Some Relationships Can't Be Described 111
8.4.1 Relationships Within a Record 111
8.4.2 Relationships Which Span Records 115
8.4.3 When is it an Intersection Record? 118
8.5 And Some Relationships Can't Even
Be Represented 118
8.6 Do Records Represent Entities?
Or Relationships? 121
8.6.1 No Record, No Entity? 121
8.6.2 It It Has A Record, It's An Entity(?) 122
8.6.3 Are Relationships Entities?
Are Attributes? 124
8.6.4 The Create/Destroy Semantic 126
8.7 Distinguishability 127
8.8 Naming Practices 128
8.8.1 Things and Their Names 128
8.8.2 Structured Names 130
8.8.3 Composite Names and the Semantics
of Relationships 130
8.8.4 The Reducibility Ambiguity 132
8.8.5 Another Ambiguity 134
8.9 Records Are Useful 135
8.10 Implicit Constraints 136
9.0 The Other Three Popular Models 137
9.1 The Relational Model 137
9.2 Hierarchies (IMS) 140
9.3 Networks (DBTG) 143
10.0 The Modelling of Relationships 147
10.1 Record Based Models 147
10.2 Binary Versus N-ary Relationships 149
10.2.1 Simplicity 150
10.2.2 Unnecessary Choices 152
10.3 Irreducible Relationships 153
10.4 Good and Bad Binaries and N-aries 154
10.4.1 The Binaries 155
10.4.2 The N-aries 161
10.4.3 A Vanishing Distinction 161
10.4.4 Case Models 163
10.5 Which Relationships Are "In the System"? 164
10.5.1 Explicitly Defined Relationships 164
10.5.2 Implicit Relationships 166
10.5.3 Orderings 167
10.6 Existence Lists 169
11.0 Elementary Concepts: Another Model? 171
11.1 System Organization 172
11.2 Primary Model Elements 172
11.2.1 Objects 172
11.2.2 Symbols 173
11.2.3 Relationships 174
11.2.4 Executable Objects 176
11.3 Secondary Elements: A Vernacular 177
11.3.1 Type 180
11.3.2 Naming 181
11.3.3 Vernacular Pictures 182
11.3.4 Sets 183
11.4 The Name of the Model 184
11.5 About Entities 184
11.5.1 Existence 184
11.5.2 The Butler Did It 185
11.6 About Symbols 185
11.7 The Symbol Stream and the Processor 186
11.8 About Relationships 187
11.8.1 Entities 187
11.8.2 Existence 188
11.8.3 Derived (Implied) Relationships 188
11.8.4 Specification 189
11.8.5 Symmetric Relationships 189
11.9 About Attributes 189
11.10 Descriptions: Data About Data 189
11.11 Implementations 190
11.12 Comparison With Other Models 192
12.0 Philosophy 193
12.1 Reality and Tools 193
12.2 Points of View 195
12.3 A View of Reality 196
Bibliography 205

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