Normal view MARC view

Organizations and environments

Author: Aldrich, Howard Publisher: Prentice Hall, 1979.Language: EnglishDescription: xiv, 384 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0136414311Type of document: BookNote: Includes index/Bibliography: p. 351-376Bibliography/Index: Includes bibliographical references and index
Tags: No tags from this library for this title. Add tag(s)
Log in to add tags.
Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print HM131 .A39 1979
(Browse shelf)
001071863
Available
Book Doriot Library
Main Collection
Print HM131 .A39 1979
(Browse shelf)
000197701
Available
Book Tanoto Library
Textbook Collection (PhD)
Print HM131 .A53 1999
(Browse shelf)
900188500
Available

Includes index/Bibliography: p. 351-376

Includes bibliographical references and index

Digitized

ORGANIZATIONS and ENVIRONMENTS CONTENTS Preface xi 1 INTRODUCTION 1 The Reality of Organizations 2 Definition of an Organization 4 Goal-directed, 4 Boundary-maintaining, 4 Activity Systems, 5 Organizational Structure: Central Variables 6 Coordination and Authority, 6 Bureaucratic Structure, 9 Opening Up the Bureaucratic Model of Organizations 13 Organizations in Relation to Environments, 14 iv Contents Sources of Change 18 Leadership, 19 Other Organizations, 20 Social and Cultural Forces, 21 Summary 22 Central Themes of the Book, 23 2 THE POPULATION ECOLOGY MODEL 26 An Overview of the Population Ecology Model 27 Variation, 28 Selection, 29 Retention, 30 Evolutionary Theory: Preliminary Considerations 31 Conservative Darwinism, 32 Reform Darwinism, 32 The Three Stage Process: Variation, Selection, Retention 33 The Occurrence of Variations, 34 Consistent Selection Criteria, 34 A Retention Mechanism, 34 The Three Stage Model Applied to Organizations 35 Variation in Organizational Populations, 35 The Selection Process Applied to Social Organization, 39 Retention Systems in Organizations, 47 A Methodological Issue 51 Hypothetical Probability "Predictions", 52 Retrospective Causal Analyses, 53 The Natural Selection Model Cannot Explain Everything, 54 Summary 54 3 ENVIRONMENTS: SOME GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 56 Environmental Variation 56 Methodological lmplications 58 Using Multiple Dimensions in Understanding Selection 70 Four Types of Environment, 71 Summary 73 4 VARIATION: INTERDEPENDENCE AND AUTONOMY WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS 75 Limits to Complexity 75 Challenges to Traditional Assumptions, 75 Loose Coupling and Hierarchy 76 Loose Coupling, 77 Hierarchy, 78 The Evolutionary Importance of Hierarchy and Loose Coupling 80 The Importance of Hierarchy, 81 The Importance of Loose Coupling, 82 Error, Chance, and Creativity 86 Chance-Prone Structures: Examples of Anarchy and Creativity, 87 Organizational Disasters, 89 Intraorganizational Conflict 9 1 Factors Producing Interunit Conflict, 93 Summary, 96 innovation and Variability 97 The Diffusion of Innovations, 98 The Adoption of Innovations, 102 Summary of Innovation and Variability, 104 Summary 105 5 ENVIRONMENTAL SELECTION: THE ROLE OF RESOURCES AND INFORMATION 106 Rational Selection Versus Environmental Selection 106 vi Contents What Is Being Selected? 108 Organizational Forms, 108 Fitness, 109 Environments as Information or Resource Flows 110 Environments as Resource Flows 111 Pure Natural Selection Model, 111 Interorganizational Dependence and Selection, 118 Environments as Information Flows 122 The Information Perspective, 122 Issues Raised by the Information Flow View, 125 Combining the Views: An Example 132 Summary 134 6 STRATEGIC CHOICE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS Aspects of Strategic Choice 137 Decision Maker Autonomy and Organizational Change, 138 Organizations May Influence Their Environments, 144 Role of Perception in Strategic Choice, 148 Limits to Strategic Choice 149 Constraints on Choosing New Environments, 149 Limits to Organizational Influence Over Environments, 153 Participants' Perceptions of Reality as Limits to Choice, 157 Summary 159 7 THE CREATION OF ORGANIZATIONS 161 Organizational Entrepreneurs: Motives and lncentives 162 The Role of the State 164 Levels of Analysis: World System or Nation-States?, 164 Political Stability, 166 Ideological Legitimation, 167 Direct Nation-State Support and Protection of Organizations, 169 The Role of the State: Summary, 171 136 Contents Environmental Variability and Niche Generation I72 Market-Oriented Economy, 172 Urbanization, 173 Political Revolution, 175 Environmental Variability and Niche Generation: Summary, 176 Patterns of Organizational Creation 177 Technological Innovations, 178 Access to Wealth and Power, 179 Labor Market Characteristics, 180 An Example of Creation: Credit Reporting Agencies, 181 Constraints on the Viability of New Forms 183 Work Force Characteristics, 183 Market Characteristics and Economic Concentration, 184 Government Regulation, 186 Constraints on Viability: Summary, 187 Summary 188 vii 8 PERSISTENCE AND TRANSFORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS Preliminary Issues 190 Types of Change, 190 Persistence: A Population Perspective 193 Stinchcombe's Examples, 193 Explanations for Persistence, 195 Persistence: Individual Organizations 197 Internal Factors in Persistence, 197 External Forces in Persistence, 199 Transformation: Single Organizations 203 Internal Forces: Growth, Power, and Goals, 204 External Forces in Transformation, 212 Transformation: Summary, 217 Summary 218 189 Contents 9 BOUNDARIES AND ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSIVENESS 219 Defining Boundaries, Authorities and Members 220 Boundaries and Organizational Authorities, 221 Limits to Organizational Authority, 223 Pressures for Responsiveness in Recruiting Employees, 228 Member Autonomy and Organizational Responsiveness 232 Responses to Declining Organizational Performance, 233 Under What Conditions are Options Chosen?, 236 Management's Responses to Exit and Voice, 239 Member Autonomy and Organizational Responsiveness: Summary, 241 Summary 242 10 SPANNING ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES 243 Interorganizational Conflict and Member Compliance 244 Expanding or Constricting Boundaries, 244 Conflict Strategies and Boundary Control, 246 Conflict and Compliance: Summary, 248 Boundary-Spanning Roles 248 Functions of Boundary Roles, 249 The Creation of Boundary Roles, 255 Role Specificity, Discretion, and Power, 259 Summary 263 11 INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS 265 Exchange and Dependence 266 Dependence, 267 Dimensions of In terorganiza tional Relations 273 Formalization, 273 Intensity, 275 Reciprocity, 276 Standardization, 277 Summary, 278 Contents lnterorganizational Relations at the Population Level 279 Organization Sets, 279 Action Sets, 280 Networks, 281 Using the Concept of Organization Set in Studying Change 284 The Interstate Commerce Commission's Capture by Special Interests, 284 Organizational Change in the "Culture" Industry, 286 Summary 290 12 MANAGING INTERDEPENDENCE THROUGH INTERORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONS 292 Proprietary Strategies 293 Aggressive Actions, 294 Dyadic Strategies 295 Choosing Boards of Directors, 295 Research on Boards of Directors, 298 Mergers and Joint Ventures, 303 Historical Patterns of Merger Activity, 304 Explaining Mergers and Joint Ventures, 307 Action Set Formation 316 The Development of Action Sets, 317 Summary 321 13 ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS AND ECONOMIC POWER 323 Evolution of Networks 323 Networks and Loose Coupling, 325 Selection Pressures and the Role of Linking-pin Organizations, 327 Network Stability: The Retention Problem, 332 An Example of Network Evolution: The NCAA, 337 Evolution of Networks: Summary, 340 ix X Contents Networks and Economic Power 340 Kinship Ties Between Corporations, 342 Interlocking Directorates, 343 Bank Centrality, 347 Networks and Economic Power: Summary, 348 Summary 349 REFERENCES 351 Index 377

There are no comments for this item.

Log in to your account to post a comment.
Koha 3.18 - INSEAD Library Catalogue
Library Home | Contact Us | What's Koha?